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nixon repub 69-74

poor econ
fall of SV
econ competition
oil shortage

isolsted himself=imperial presidency
focused on intern
w/kissinger reduc CW tension

demo congress



wanted peace w/honor


nixon doctrine

future asian allies would recieve us support w/o ground forces


kent state n jackson state incident 70

after decrease in forces viet, gov invade cambodia to destroy viet bases there. prtoest at college resulted in killing of students by national guard.

senate not house voted for repeal of gulf of tonkins

then massacre of mylai became public


pentagon paperd

publish in NYtimes of secret gov actions n mistakes/deceptiondealing with vietnam leaked by ellsberg. increased antiwar sentiments


paris accords 73

kissinger conduct secret meetings w/ NV but could not reach a deal. nixon bombs NV to force agreement B-52. NV then agreed, US witdraw its troops n get back POW,

Acccord promised cease fire and free elections. did not end war


nixon visits china 72

was not condemned as soft,
secret negotiation lead to visit w/ Mao lead to recognition of their gov later on in 79



reduction of cw tensions. China n SU are rivals.

good relations with china pressure SU into agreeing to ABMs treaty limiting antibalistic missles.


salt 1

strategic arms limitation talks. su agreed to freeze the # of ballistic misssles carrying nuclear warheafs


southern strategy

nix=minority pres.
silent majority: conservative who unhappy with gov but does not state it publically(bc antiwar, black militant, school busing and counterculture) demo n southwhites, ncatholic bluecollar n surban who disagree with liberal rift in party.


burger court

lberal replaced w/conserv by nixon. warren replaced by burger more conserv.
71= busing end racial prob
72= death penalty harder to get
legalized abortion roevwade
turn over watergate tapes


election 72

to win the south, nix ask south courts to delay integration and busing orders and nominated 2 south conserv to scourt. court rejected and senate didnt confirm the nominees. auhtorize Agnew to verbally assult war protest and attach press as liberal.


before new federalism

nixon tried to slow growth of Great Society to replace it with family assistance plan= no welfare instead guarenteed anual income for wrkers). congress said no.

did give state more responsibilitysocial programs


new fed

revenue sharing, gov give lcoal gov 30 bill in block grants over 5 yrs to address local needs instead of specifics. approved by repub.


social programs under nix

attempted to bypass congress by takings funds from social programs. demo protested that its was an abuse of executive power. court agreed that p had to carry out laws of congress


econ under nixon 70s

slowdown n high inflation (stagflation). nix cut fed spending but failed, adopted keynesian and deficit spending to not alienate middle class or blue collar. imposed 90day wage n price freeze.

took dollar off gold standard (devalue it to other countries) in increase tax on all import= imporved US blance trade with foreign competitiors


election 72 year

end of recession and congress approve autonmatic increase for ss benefits based of anual rise in cost of livings. protect seniors n poor n disabled, contributed to budget problems. title 9 passed: ended sex discrim in pub schools (athletic affect)


election 72

nix won in south state
and won bbc foreign policy sucess
demo=mcgovern dropped VP bc he had electroshock treatment for depression. antiwar, antiestablishm,ent and liberal. demo controlled both house of congress. nixon won by landslide



committee to reelect the president. w. nixon's admin broke into watergate ajd bugg and other illegal activities



stop leaks and discredit oponents. burglarize ellsberg to get info to iscredit him.

nix also wiretaps gov employes and reporters to stop leaks



nix involved in the cover up of the scandal


sam ervin

lead senate investigating committe bought attention to abuses by televised hearing to the US citizens.


john dean

white house lawyer testified and linked the president to the cover up


resignation of spiro agnew

bc he takes bribe when he was governor of maryland replaced by gerald ford


war power act 73

response to news of bombing raids in cambodia. president had to report to congress within 48 hrs after milit action and congress would have to apporve of it if it lasted more than 60 days


oil embargo 73

syrians n egyptians attacked isreal on Yom kipper to recover land from previous six day war. US supported isreal. then OPEC placed embargo on oil sold to isreal's supporters.


effect of oil embargo

worldwide oil shortage and long lines at gas station.

US: inflation, unemployment. consumers favered japenese fuel efficient cars rather than american. automobile workers lost job. 55 mile spped limit to save gas and constructed an oil pipline in alaska. did not helpcontinued to 1980. gov


articles of impeachment

fired archibald cox (prosecutor of watergate investigation). us aorny general resigned in protest. caused House to have impeachment hearings. caused Nix to reveal watergate tapes.
House judiciary comitte articles of impeach:
obstruction of justice
abuse of power
contempt of congress


resignation and effect 74

gerald ford became president.
proved US system of checks and balances works. underlined dangerouse shift of power to the presidency. loosing faith of fe gov


nixon pardon.
ford 74-77

for any crime that he might have committed and extended before formal charges by court.


fall of saigon

ford can't get additional funds from congress for SV. 75 saigon fell



fell to Rouge (communist who killed ppl to rid the country of western influence) created refugees that fleed to US


WIN buttons

urged bussiness and consumers to wear these but did not stop nfkation. suk further into recession. relunctantly stimulate econ



demo congress searched for abuses there. was accused of helping assassinate foreign leaders. ford appoint GHW bush to reform it


Ford's domestic

more conservative. bring inflation under control


jimmy carter

supprted by south and aa. unpopular after 1st term bc iran and econ


human rights diplomacy

carter and young supported human rights around the world and oppose the oppression of aa. cut off US aids to countries with military gov that violated human rights in latin american


andrew young

aa us ambassador to the UN


panama canal 200

gave it back


camp david accords 78

carter arranged peace btw egypt n isreal. invited laders to mmet at camp david and negotiated the accord: framework for peace settlement. egypt became first arab nation to recognize that nation of isreal. isreal withdrew its triio. PLO (palestine) oppose it and most of the arab world


iran hostage 79

anti-americcan sentiment strong and the demo eected leader overthrown and installed dictator earlier.

fundamentalist lead by Khomeni overthrew shad that kept oils flowing for west n alientated iran citiz. iranian oil came to halt. iranian militant seized US embassy. carter can't free them


recognition of china

79, not taiwan anymore



signed treaty with SU limiying size of nuclear delivery system. never reatified. renewed Cold war tension in afghanistan


usreactions to soviet invasion of afghanistan 79

ended SU relation. us feared that SU will have more control on oil. carter placed embargo on grain exports and sale of SU tech. boycott olympics in moscow. arm buildup in US


record inflation 79-80 lowest

carter tried conserv oil and revive coal indust. slowed econ growth bc high ptices. fed reserv pushed interest rates higher = unemployment.

higher tax= taxpayer revolt


US in transtition

many lived in south and west. alot of old ppl. minority groups make up of more of the population.


cultural pluralism

cultural groups strove to end discrimination n improve lives n celebrate their traditions



80s= latin america (east, midwest), asia. refugees from cuba n vietnam. immigration act 65 ended quota acts of 20s


illegal immigration

rise if immigrants lead to immigration reofrm n control act 86: penalized employers for hiring illegals while gratning amnesty to undocimented arived by 82. loss of border


cesar chavez-united farm workers organization 75

boycotts protest exploitation of mexican workers. got rights for farm workers and require schools to teach both spanish and english. more latinos were lected (largest minority group


AI Movmeent 68

ai refused to assimilate into us culture bc identity. AIM tries to acheive self determination n revival of tribal traditions. military actions takeover abandon prison and occupied wounded knee. population increases


indian self-determination act 75

gave reservation and tribal lands greater control over internal programs, edu, police.
regained property and attacked poverty by improve edu: tribully controlled community college assistance act n casinoos


gay liberation movment

sparked by police raid in stonewall inn gay bar. fed civil service drpped band on employment of homosexuals. Clinton tried to end discrime in military but settles for dont ask dont tell


dont ask dont tell

ppl would not be asked about sexual orientation but military could still expell gays


earth day 70

large ppl participated showed nation's concern. many oil spills. public against building additional nuclear power plants


clean air act 70

created EPA, clean water act laterestablished and 73 endangered species act. Laws made to regulate toxic sub . pub drinking water, waste, n protect envir. 80: indust n business backlash.


prospostion 13 (78)

califirnia voters lead revolt against increasing paxes by passing propositioncut property taxes. conserv promted laffer's believe tax cut increase gov revenues.


religious revivvals

tv religious leader talks about moral decay (televangelist).religion affected electoral politicss.

religious attaced secular humanism abd caimmpagn for return of prayers and teachigns in pub school.


moral mojority

founded by Falwell, fincanced campagins to unseat liberal members of congress.


rights to life movement

roe v wade sparked right-to-life mov united catholic n fundamentalist protestants.


regents of uni of CA vs bakke

bc recession and staglation, whites blamed their troubles of affirmative ction (reverse discrim)

SCOurt ruled that white race could be considered. racial quotas created by school is unconstitutional.

help conservative caimpagin to end all preferences based on race


election of 80 Reagan repub

popular won bc carter's unpopularity and growing conservatism. got half blue collar and repub got control of senate. when elected: iran released hostages


goal of reagan

lower raxes
reduce gov spending on welfare
build up armed forces
created a more conservative fed court

increased national debt. tax cuts increased consumption of foreign. trade deficit increased. 85: us became a debtor nation



suppply-side econ: tax cuts and reduce gov spedning increase job-prosperity. compared it to trickle down econ-wealthly prospere, helped middle and poor a little bit keynesian=demo

large increase in milit spending


tax cuts n deregulatin of busi n indus

economic recovery act 81= decrease personal income tax. tax relieff went to upper income taxpayers. conserv sdemo+bollweevils) n repub cut money from domestic programs (food stamps, student loans) increase milit spending. strengthened SS.

82: bad recession. reaganomics works 83: recovery (widen gap btw rich n poor



fed air traffic controllers. was fired for violating thier contracts n ended union. business followed by hirin striker replacements. union membership declined bc antiunion policy and lost of manufacturing jobs



younf urban progession: high incomes fro mderegulation..

while middle class declined/ stayed the same standard of living


election 84

reagan had public confdence

jesse jackson: first aa to run strongly: supported ny minority group under national rainbow coalition.

geraldine ferraro: first woman to run for VP


effects of reaganomics

national debt increase- us becmae debtor nation. to reduce deficit: congress 85 passed a budget act= across the board spending cuts. successful. reduced restriction on free market and more money to investors/higher income. containing great society.increase decficit.no new social programs


business 70s

busi donors created think tanks to promtote free markert ideas. Us chamber of commerve lobbied for probusiness legislation. unfluence gov to do stuff in their fvpr


military buildup and SDI star wars

aid to anti-commun in latin america
reagan admin spend alot of money to build new weapons. B-1 bombers n MX missile to expand US navy,

increase spending on SDi=laser and beam to destrou enemy missiles b4 reaching US



Sandinistas (Marx) overthrew their dictator. US send aid to the groups against the sandinistas.

85-Demo passed Boland Admendment: prohibited further aid to the contras


el salvador

US send money to aid gov against guerillas. Many US protest us killing civilians



coup establish procuan. Reagan ordered marines to invade to prevent the establishment of strategic communist military base. suceed n reestablish pro-US gov


iran contra affair

80 Iran vs Iraq, reag secretly slling weaons to Iran in exchange for hostage. Staff use the profits from that to fund the contras in nicrargua. Reag denied knowledge. affected image a little bit


beirut 83 lebanon

arab suicide squad bombed us embassy killed ppl. later, bombed marine barrack, killed.

84, reagan pulled us forces out of lebanon



new SU leader 85change its domestic politics by introducinf reforms: glasnost, prestroika

wanted to end arm race n deal with deteriorating soviet econ, 87 reagan challenged him to follow through w/ reform.



to end political repression n move toward greater political freedom for SU citizen



intro some free market


INF agreement

SU n US agree to remove/destroy al intermediate range missiles.

88-SU pulled troops out of afghanistan. cooperated w/US puttting pressure on iran/q to end their war. reduced CW tension


election 88

demo got congress
Bush won by saying that demo was soft on crime n weak at national degense. promised not to raise taxes.

middle class white=antidemo


tiananmen square 89

prodemo students in china demonstrated for freedom in square. tv broadcast to west n other demo gov. night= Chinese gov crushed protest w/tank-killed


german reunificiation

Su would not upport communist gov in eatern EU w/ armed SU forces. lead to communist party falling from power. East germany were forced out of power after protestors tore down wall. 89


su breaks up 90

estonia, latviam lithuania declared indep. failed anti-gorbachev coup by commune. republics deissolved the SU leaving gorbachev a leader w/o countru. Yeltsin (russian repub) joined other former soviet repub to form CIS. yeltsin disbanded communist party in russia and attempted to establish a demo/free market


start 1
start 2

91, SU n US signed 1 agreement reducing the # of nuclear warhead. 92-2 more reduce # of nuclear weapons. also offered US econ assis to Russian econ. end of CW


invasion of panama

US, to remove Noriega from using his country as a drug pipeline to the US, troops remained until a more credible election established


persian gulf war90

Hussein(Iraq dictator) invaded kuwait. threatened west oil sources. US n UN pressure him to withdraw. UN embargo had no effect. Desert storm: 91, US and other nations joined togerher-air strikes and invasion. Iraq surrendered.


Failed SnL

gov intervened w/ save weak saving n loan institution and payed depositor for funds lost in its failure. this would cost taxpayer money. nore new taxes proposed by congress. increase income tax and excise on some products. damaged bush's imagerecession started again.



after cold war=antiincumbent mood. dissapointment i gov. movments created to impose term limits . SCourt ruled that states could not limit term of fed lawmakers

92-27th admnd prohibit congress to raise their own salaries


92 election

more focused on domestic

clinton: first babay boomer president, south n blue collar from repib


H.Ross Perot

independent presid candidate. used own money for stuff (rich). antigov/deficit. best 3rd party since teddy


Carol Mosley-Braun

first aa women in senate


motor voter law

along with fmaily and medical leave act enabled citizen to register to vote as they recieve thier license


Brady Handgun bill

5 day waiting period for the purchase of handgun

clinton's anticrime bill gave money for more police protection etc. sale of most assult riflles banned (NRA hated that). tried to reduce deficit with spending cuts n tazes.



free trade zone w/ canada


newt gringrich and the contract w/US

speake rof the house led repub in an attack on fed program n psneding in manifesto contract w/ america.

clinton propsed leaner not meaner/balanced budget. confrontation lead to shitdown of fed gov 95/ US blamed it on repub.


oklahoma city bombing 95

of fed building by militia movement extremists. killed domestic terrorism


tech boom

clinton: longest peacetime econ expansion,

dotcom boom google, apple

US business cutt cost n increase profitability n lowered inglation. unemployment fell


clinton end

struggle btw repub congress n demo p
repub wanted more tax cuts . p wanted suppport ss medicare n reduce debt.

wife n him were under investigation by congress bc of watergate, note charged with any thing regading whitewater real estate deal, firing stage, political use of FBI files.


clinton impeach

sexual harrasment while governor

house voted to impeach 98 perjury n obstruction. not many suported. repub wanted this . demo got seats. senate did not charge him


sandra day o'connor

first woman on the scourt, conserv appointed by reagan


reagan foreign policies

set back in ME
cold war intensidied in 80s bc arm buildup and SU deployment of more missles against NATO



isreal (US approved) invaded lebanon to stop palestinian (PLO) terrorists from raiding its own countr.

US send peacekeeping forces to lebanon to contain its civil war.

after Beirut, secstate want to end conflict and set up homeland for them. its leader agreed to let isreal exist


americans w/disabilities 90

Bush, prohibit discrim based on physic n mental disabilities in hiring n public tuff. no other domestic policy. reagan did a better job


election 94

repub got control back of both houses. promted contract w/ america. demo was unpopular bc raised taxes n limited gun ownershup.


Personal responsibility and work oppurtunity act

congress later 96 limited welfare benefit to 5 yrs. invcreased min wage n balanced the budget. additionally: spedning cuts n tax increaes along w/ econ growth stoped deficit spending 98 produced new jobs


goerge W bush


tax cuts, deregulation, fed aid to faithbased organ, prolife, made ss n medicare private, less environmentalist


disputed election 2000

closest, settled bu scourt
VP Gore
Bush: repib


republican tax cuts

doubled national debt


no child left behind act

bipartistant. improve edu n close gap by testing


al-qaeda/osama bin laden

bc Us supported isreal, antimodernization US tropps on ME against their religion. islamic extrmist preached jihad.
there were early terrprost attacks. US bombed alqaeda camps. laden fled to afghan n allied w/ taloban.


war in afghanistan

bush wanted laden dead or alive. taliban refused to hand over. they were overthrown by us bombing.


patroit act

after 9/11 citiz okay w/ background chack/ tsa. gave unparalleled powers to the us gov to obtain info, expand surveillance n arrest powers. homeland also created


bush doctrine

bush expanded UN n nato. hower US did not help prevent global warming, walked out on conferences, abandon treatu, not negotiate w/ NK n iran.

doctrine: old policies containment n deterrence no longer effective in terrorism.



isolation, not interacting w/ other counttries


operation Iraqi freedom

us thought iraq involved in 911, however there is no link.iraq accepted inspection n no wmd found
bc iraq did not comply w/ some UN reoluion. US air attavck n captured city ended hussein. no wmd found. this did not end violence there. divrse groups attack US/allies troop and eachother. many fleed. bush critized

iraq was reconstructed but violenced continued. when less violence then US turned over control.

taliban stepped up on atacks. manu US killed.


hurricane katrina 05

after ward, many scandals involve the repub n disatisfaction of iraq war helped demo get control of congress.

influentual supreme court: roberts n aito



created as a restult of hurricane katrina failed to anticipate n respond to crisis


causes of great recession

houseing boom: suprime mortage n investors can flip property for progit. securitizatopm sold to investors around the world. price decrease. bubble burst. invesors panicled, banks faced failure.high gas price. uemploy. a wall street bankrupt. bush asked congress for money to help banks. econ stabilization act created TARP that purchase failinf assets from financial instiution. controversal


08 election

increase demo in congress. largest crowed ever to attend inauguration, faced econ crisis, 2 unfinished war, skeptism of US power


econ stimulus

Tarp fund used for automakers. overturned actions of bush. ban torture for terorist suspect. expanded stem cell researcj m ended restriction of fund oversea helath organ.

2007-recession. unemploy. kenyesian. amercoam recov n reinvestment act 09: jons. involved in car companies. took over general motors


cash for clunkers

incentive for US ppl to scrap old cars to promte sales n purchase new cars


great recession

dodd frank wall street forform n consumer protection act 10 improve regulation of banking and investment firm, protect taxpayers. regulate consumer products. critized for not breaking up big banks

lowered tax n increase gov spending on ecov program. increase deficit.


obama care 10

extend affordable health care insurance. required insurance companies to accept patients regardless of presexisting conditions and to spend more money refund their custon medical care. repub hated it bc it cost too much


rise of tea party

oppose to deficit n ^debt n obamacare, conserv n libertarian mov.10, repub got back senate

congress in gridlock: can not agree on plan to decrease deficit spending. agreed to cut spending; lead to downgrade in AAA credit rating. 12: do nothing congresss


death of bin laden

obama wanted to decrease troops in iraq 11 n added more troops in afghan


clinton foreign

ethnic, cultural conflict. secstate chris: policy lacked purpose. send troops to help gov of haiti bc coup n badecon. tried to negotiate end of brit rule of nire



first women to serve as secstate


europe during clinton

EU=euro, grew more members including satellite.
russia struggle. Putin came after Yeltsin. strain relationship w/ US bc it supported serbia during balkan war. serb oppresss indept movment , genocide. nato stopped them


asia under clinton

NKorea involved in nuclear reacter/missle program. agreed to US to stop the development but secretly did it. india/pakistan tested nuclear weapons. establish relations w/ vietnam. tried to keep good relationship w/ china even though some US citizen protested


ME under clinton

Hussein did not want UN to inspect its weapons. lad o inspection suspension. clinton responded w/ air strikes but hussein remained in power. suppport for US's econ help delined in EU/ME.


bush stock market crash

02 loss of consumer confidence in econ. investors moved money to real estate creating another bubble that will burst 2nd term