Arteries of the Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Musculoskeletal System > Arteries of the Lower Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arteries of the Lower Limb Deck (61):
1

What is the main artery of the lower limb?

The femoral artery

2

What is the femoral artery a continuation of?

The external iliac artery

3

What is the external iliac artery?

The terminal branch of the abdominal aorta

4

When does the external iliac artery become the femoral artery?

When it crosses under the inguinal ligament and enters the femoral triangle

5

What arises from the femoral artery in the femoral triangle?

The profunda femoris artery

6

Where does the profunda femoris artery arise from?

The posterolateral aspect of the femoral artery

7

Where does the profunda femoris artery travel?

Posteriorly and distally

8

What does the profunda femoris artery give off?

Three main branches, perforating branches, the lateral femoral circumflex artery, and the medial femoral circumflex artery

9

What do the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery consist of?

Three or four arteries that perforate the adductor magnus

10

What do the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery contribute?

The supply of the muscles in the medial and posterior thigh

11

What course does the lateral femoral circumflex artery take?

Wraps around the anterior, lateral side of the femur

12

What does the lateral femoral circumflex artery supply?

Some of the muscles in the lateral side of the thigh

13

What course does the medial femoral circumflex artery take?

Wraps around the posterior side of the femur

14

What does the medial femoral circumflex artery supply?

The neck and head of the femur

15

What happens in a fracture of the femoral neck?

The medial femoral circumflex artery can easily be damaged, and avascular necrosis of the femur head can occur

16

What happens to the femoral artery after exiting the femoral triangle?

It continues down the anterior surface of the thigh

17

How does the femoral artery continue down the thigh?

Via a tunnel known as the adductor canal

18

What does the femoral artery do during its descent?

Supplies the anterior thigh muscles

19

Where does the adductor canal end?

At an opening in the adductor magnus, called the adductor hiatus

20

What happens as the femoral artery moves through the adductor hiatus?

It enters the posterior compartment of the thigh, proximal to the knee

21

What does the femoral artery become once it’s going through the adductor hiatus?

The popliteal artery

22

Where is the femoral artery located within the femoral triangle?

Superficially

23

What is the result of the femoral artery being located superficially within the femoral triangle?

It is easy to access, and therefore suitable for a range of clinical procedures

24

Give two procedures that the femoral artery can be used for

Coronary artery angiography 
Drawing arterial blood gases

25

What happens in a coronary artery angiography?

The femoral artery is catheterised with a long, thin tube. The tube is navigated up the external iliac artery, common iliac artery, aorta, and into the coronary vessels. A radioactive dye in then ejected into the coronary vessels, and any wall thickening or blockages can be visualised via x-ray imaging

26

What does the obturator artery arise from?

The internal iliac artery in the pelvic region

27

What course does the obturator artery take?

It descends via the obturator canal to enter the medial thigh, and then bifurcates

28

What branches arise from the bifurcation of the obturator artery?

Anterior branch 
Posterior branch

29

What does the anterior branch of the obturator artery supply?

The pectineus, obturator externus, adductor muscles and gracilis

30

What does the posterior branch of the obturator artery supply?

Some of the deep gluteal muscles

31

What is the gluteal region largely supplied by?

The superior and inferior gluteal arteries

32

What to the gluteal arteries arise from?

The internal iliac artery

33

How do the gluteal arteries enter the gluteal region?

Via the greater sciatic foramen

34

Where does the gluteal arteries leave the greater sciatic foramen?

The superior, above the piriformis muscle 
The inferior below it

35

What does the inferior gluteal artery contribute towards?

The vasculature of the posterior thigh

36

Where does the popliteal artery descend?

Down the posterior thigh

37

What does the popliteal artery do as it descends down the posterior thigh?

It gives off genicular branches that supply the knee joint

38

How does the popliteal artery exit the popliteal fossa?

Sandwiched between the gastrocnemius and popliteus muscles

39

Where does the popliteal artery terminate?

At the lower border of the popliteus muscle

40

How does the popliteal artery terminate?

By dividing into anterior and posterior tibial arteries

41

What course does the posterior tibial artery take?

It continues inferiorly, along the surface of the deep muscles (such as tibialis posterior). It then accompanies the tibial nerve in entering the sole of the foot via the tarsal tunnel.

42

What happens during descent of the posterior tibial artery down the leg?

The fibular artery arises

43

What course does the fibular artery take?

It moves laterally, penetrating the lateral compartment of the leg

44

What does the fibular artery supply?

Muscles in the lateral compartment, and adjacent muscles in the posterior compartment

45

What course does the anterior tibial artery take?

It passes anteriorly between the tibia and fibula, through a gap in the interosseous membrane. It then moves inferiorly down the leg. It runs down the entire length into the leg, and into the foot

46

What does the anterior tibial artery become in the foot?

The dorsalis pedis artery

47

How is arterial supply to the foot delivered?

Dorsalis pedis 
Posterior tibial

48

Where does the dorsalis pedis artery begin?

As the anterior tibial artery enters the foot

49

What course does the dorsalis pedis artery take?

It passes over the dorsal aspect of the tarsal bones, then moves inferiorly, towards the sole of the foot.

50

What does the dorsalis pedis artery anastomose with?

The lateral plantar artery

51

What is formed when the dorsalis pedis artery anastomoses with the lateral plantar artery?

It forms the deep plantar arch

52

What does the dorsalis pedis artery supply?

The tarsal bones and the dorsal aspect of the metatarsals
Via the deep plantar arch, it also contributes to the supply of the toes

53

How does the posterior tibial artery enter sole of the foot?

Through the tarsal tunnel

54

What does the posterior tibial artery do once it’s entered the foot?

It splits into the lateral and medial plantar arteries

55

What do the lateral and medial plantar arteries supply?

The plantar side of the foot 
Contributes to the supply of the toes via the deep plantar arch

56

What are the three main pulse points in the lower limb?

Femoral 
Popliteal 
Dorsalis pedis

57

Where the femoral pulse be palpated?

As it enters the femoral triangle, midway between the anterior superior iliac spine of the pelvis, and the pubis symphesis

58

Where does the popliteal artery pulse lie?

Deep in the popliteal fossa

59

What does palpation of the popliteal pulse require?

Deep palpation

60

How can palpation of the popliteal pulse be made easier?

Ask the patient to slightly flex their leg, which relaxes the fascia around the popliteal fossa

61

How is the dorsalis pedis pulse found?

By palpated on the dorsum of the foot, just lateral to the extensor hallucis longus tendon