Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Musculoskeletal System > Vertebral Column > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (105):
1

What is the vertebral column also known as?

The backbone, or spine

2

What is the vertebral column made up of?

Approx. 33 small bones, called vertebrae

3

Where does the vertebral column run?

From the cranium to the apex of the coccyx, on the posterior aspect of the body

4

What does the vertebral column do?

Contains and protects the spinal cord

5

What are the most important functions of the vertebral column?

Protection Support AxisMovement

6

What is the vertebral columns protective role?

Encloses spinal cord, shielding it from damage

7

What is the vertebral columns support role?

It carries the weight of the body above the pelvis

8

How does the vertebral column act as an axis?

It forms the central axis of the body

9

What is the vertebral columns movement role?

It has roles both in posture and movement

10

What can the vertebral column be separated into?

Five different regions- cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum and the coccyx

11

What is each region of the spinal cord characterised by?

A different vertebral structure

12

What do all vertebrae have?

The same basic structure, but significant differences in size and shape between groups

13

What does each vertebrae consist of?

Vertebral bodyPosterior vertebral arch

14

What is the vertebral body?

The anterior part of the vertebrae

15

What is the purpose of the vertebral body?

It is the weight bearing component

16

What happens to the vertebral body as the vertebral column descends?

The size increases

17

Why does the size of the vertebral body increase as the vertebral column descends?

Because it has to support increasing amounts of weight each time

18

What the superior and inferior aspects of the vertebral body lined by?

Hyaline cartilage

19

What are adjacent vertebral bodies separated by?

A fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc

20

What do the intervertebral discs act to do?

Permit flexibility of the spineAct as a shock absorbers

21

What shape are the intervertebral discs in the lumbar and thoracic regions?

Wedge shaped

22

What does the wedge shape of the intervertebral discs allow?

Support for curvature of the spine

23

What are the two main regions of the vertebral disc?

Nucleus pulposus Annulus fibrosis

24

What is the nature of the annulus fibrosis?

Tough and collagenous

25

What does the annulus fibrosis surround?

The nucleus pulposus

26

What is the nature of the nucleus pulposus?

Jelly-like

27

Where is the nucleus pulposus located?

Posteriorly

28

What happens in herniation of the intervertebral disc?

The nucleus pulposus ruptures, breaking through the annulus fibrosis

29

In what direction does herniation of the intervertebral disc most commonly occur?

In a posterior and lateral direction

30

What is the result of the posterior and lateral herniation of the intervertebral discs?

It puts pressure on the spinal cord, resulting in a variety of neurological and muscular symptoms

31

What does the vertebral arch refer to?

The lateral and posterior parts of the vertebrae

32

What does the vertebral arch from with the vertebral body?

An enclosed hole, called a vertebral foramen

33

What do the foramina of all vertebrae do?

Line up to form the vertebral canal

34

What does the vertebral canal do?

Encloses the spinal cord

35

What do the vertebral arches have?

A number of bony prominences

36

What do the bony prominences of the vertebral arches act as?

Attachment sites for muscles and ligaments

37

What are the bony prominences of the vertebral arch?

Pedicles Lamina Transverse processesArticular processes Spinous processes

38

How many pedicles are there per vertebral arch?

Two, one left and one right

39

Where to the pedicles point?

Posteriorly

40

What do the pedicles meet?

The flatter laminae

41

What is the lamina?

The bone between the transverse and spinal processes

42

Where do the transverse processes extend?

Laterally and posteriorly away from the pedicles

43

What do the transverse processes do in the thoracic vertebrae?

Articulate with the ribs

44

What are the kinds of articular processes?

Superior and inferior

45

Where do the articular processes arise?

At the junction of the lamina and the pedicles

46

What do the articular processes articulate with?

The vertebrae above and below

47

What are the spinous processes?

Posterior and inferior projections of bones

48

What are the spinous processes a site for?

Attachment for muscles and ligaments

49

Draw a diagram showing the bony prominences of vertebrae

No  

50

How many cervical vertebrae are there in the human body? 

7

51

What are the main distinguishing features of cervical vertebrae?

The spinous process bifurcates into two parts
Two transverse foramina, one in each transverse process
The vertebral foramen is triangular in shape

52

What is the spinous process in cervical vertebrae known as?

A bifid spinous process

53

What do the transverse foramina in cervical vertebrae do?

Conduct the vertebral arteries

54

Which cervical vertebrae are unique?

C1 and C2

55

What is the C1 vertebrae called?

Atlas

56

What is the C2 vertebrae called?

Axis

57

What are the C1 and C2 vertebrae specialised to do?

Allow movement of the head

58

How does the C7 cervical vertebrae differ from the others?

It has a much longer spinous process, which does not bifurcate

59

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

60

What size are the thoracic vertebrae?

Medium sized, increasing as they move down the back

61

What is the main function of the thoracic vertebrae?

To articulate with the ribs, producing the bony thorax

62

What does each thoracic vertebrae have?

Two 'demi facets' on each side of its vertebral body

63

What do the demi facets of the thoracic vertebrae articulate with?

The head of the respective rib, and the rib inferior to it

64

What is found on the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae?

A costal facet for articulation with its respective rib

65

How are the spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae orientated?

Slanted inferiorly and anteriorly

66

What is the result of the slanting of the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae?

It offers increased protection to the spinal cord

67

How does the vertebral foramen of the thoracic vertebrae differ from the cervical?

Circular

68

Which are the largest of the vertebrae?

The lumbar

69

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

70

What do the lumbar vertebrae act to do?

Support the weight of the upper body

71

What specialisations do lumbar vertebrae have to allow them to support the weight of the upper body?

Very large vertebral bodies

72

What shape are the vertebral bodies of lumbar vertebrae?

Kidney shaped

73

What characteristics of vertebrae do lumbar vertebrae lack?

No foramen transversarium, costal facets, or bifid spinous processes

74

What shape is the vertebral foramen of the lumbar vertebrae?

Triangular

75

What is the sacrum?

A collection of five fused vertebrae

76

What is the sacrum described as?

An upside down triangle, with the apex pointing inferiorly

77

What is found in the lateral walls of the sacrum?

Facets for articulation with the pelvis

78

Where does the sacrum articulate with the pelvis?

At sacro-iliac joints

79

What is the coccyx?

A small bone

80

What does the coccyx articulate with?

The apex of the sacrum

81

How is the coccyx recognised?

By its lack of vertebral arches

82

What is the result of the lack of vertebral arches in the coccyx?

It has no vertebral canal, and so the coccyx doesn't transmit the spinal cord

83

How many articulations are there for each vertebrae?

5

84

What do the vertebral bodies articulate with?

Indirectly, with each other
Articular processes also form joint

85

What kind of joints are the vertebral body joints?

Cartilaginous joints

86

What are the vertebral body joints designed to do?

Weight bearing

87

How are the vertebral bodies connected?

By a fibrocartilage intervertebral disc

88

What ligaments strengthen the vertebral bodies?

Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

89

Is the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament thicker?

The anterior

90

What do the anterior longitudinal ligament do?

Prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column

91

What does the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Prevents hyperflexion

92

What are the joints between the articular facets called?

Facet joints

93

What do the facet joints allow?

Some gliding motion

94

What ligaments strengthen the facet joints?

Ligamentum Flavum
Interspinous and Supraspinous ligaments
Intertransverse ligaments

95

Where does ligamentum flavum extend?

From lamina to lamina

96

What do interspinous and supraspinous ligament join?

The spinous processes

97

How do the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments joint the spinous processes?

The interspinous ligaments attach between processes
The supraspinous ligaments attach to the tips

98

Where do the intertransverse ligaments extend?

Between the transverse processes

99

What clinical syndromes result from abnormal curvature of the spine?

Kyphosis
Lordosis
Scoliosis
Cervical Spondylosis

100

What is kyphosis?

Excessive thoracic curvature, causing a humpback deformity

101

What is lordosis?

Excessive lumbar curvature, causing a swayback deformity

102

What is scoliosis?

A lateral curvature of the spine, usually of unknown cause

103

What is cervical spondylosis?

A decrease in size of the intervertebral foramina, usually due to degeneration of the joints of the spine

104

What does cervical spondylosis cause?

Pain

105

Why does cervical spondylosis cause pain?

Because the smaller size of the intervertebral foramina puts pressure on the exiting nerves