Lymphatic Drainage of the Upper Limb Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Musculoskeletal System > Lymphatic Drainage of the Upper Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lymphatic Drainage of the Upper Limb Deck (44):
1

What does the lymphatic system function to do?

Drain tissue fluid, plasma proteins and other cellular debris back into the blood stream. Involved in immune defence

2

What is the collection of substances known as once it’s entered the lymphatic vessels?

Lymph

3

What happens to lymph?

It is filtered by lymph nodes and directed into the venous system

4

What do the superficial lymphatic vessels of the upper limb arise from?

Initially the lymphatic plexuses in the skin of the hand

5

What are lymphatic plexuses?

Networks of lymphatic capillaries beginning in the extracellular spaces

6

Where to the superficial lymphatic vessels of the arm ascend?

Up the arm, in close proximity to the major superficial veins

7

Where do the vessels shadowing the basilic vein go?

They enter the cubital lymph nodes

8

Where are the cubital lymph nodes found?

Medially to the vein, and proximally to the medial epicondyle of the humerus

9

What happens to vessels carrying on from the cubital lymph nodes?

They continue up the arm, terminating in the lateral axillary lymph nodes

10

Where do the vessels shadowing the cephalic vein go?

Generally, they cross the proximal part of the arm and shoulder to enter the apical axially lymph nodes, though some exceptions instead enter the more superficial deltopectoral lymph nodes

11

What do the deep lymphatic vessels of the upper limb follow?

The major deep veins- radial, ulnar and brachial

12

How do the deep lymphatic vessels of the upper limb terminate?

In the humeral axillary lymph nodes

13

What do the deep lymphatic vessels of the upper limb function to do?

Drain lymph from joint capsules, periosteum, tendons and muscles

14

Where may some additional lymph nodes be found?

Along the ascending path of deep vessels

15

Where are the majority of upper lymph nodes located?

In the axilla

16

What groups can the axillary lymph nodes be divided into?

Pectoral (anterior)
Subscapular (posterior) 
Humeral (lateral)
Central 
Apical

17

How many pectoral lymph nodes are there?

03-May

18

Where are the pectoral lymph nodes located?

In the medial wall of the axilla

19

Where do the pectoral lymph nodes receive lymph from?

Primarily the anterior thoracic wall, including most of the breast

20

How man subscapular lymph nodes are there?

06-Jul

21

Where are the subscapular lymph nodes located?

Along the posterior axillary fold and subscapular blood vessels

22

Where do subscapular lymph nodes receive lymph from?

The posterior thoracic wall and scapular region

23

How many humeral lymph nodes are there?

04-Jun

24

Where are the humeral lymph nodes located?

In the lateral wall of the axilla, posterior to the axillary vein

25

Where do the humeral lymph nodes receive lymph from?

Receive the majority of lymph drained from the upper limb

26

How many central lymph nodes are there?

03-Apr

27

How big are the central lymph nodes?

Large

28

Where are the central lymph nodes located?

Near the base of the axilla (deep to the pectoralis minor, close to the 2nd part of the axillary artery)

29

Where do the central lymph nodes receive lymph from?

Via efferent vessels, from the pectoral, subscapular and humeral axillary lymph node groups

30

Where are the apical lymph nodes located?

In the apex of the axilla, close to the axillary vein and 1st part of the axillary artery

31

Where do the apical lymph nodes receive lymph from?

Efferent vessels of the central axillary lymph nodes, therefore from all axillary lymph node groups 
From those lymphatic vessels accompanying the cephalic vein

32

Where to efferent vessels from the apical axillary nodes travel?

Through the cervico-axillary canal

33

What happens once efferent vessels from the apical axillary nodes have gone through the cervico-axillary canal?

They converge to form the subclavian lymphatic trunk

34

What does right subclavian lymphatic trunk do?

Continues to form the right lymphatic duct, and enters the right venous angle directly

35

What is the right venous angle?

Junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins

36

What does the left subclavian lymphatic trunk do?

Drains directly into the thoracic duct

37

What can cause enlargement of axillary lymph nodes?

Infection of the upper limb, resulting in lymphangitis 
Infections of the pectoral region and breast
Metastasis of breast cancers

38

What is lymphangitis?

Inflammation of lymphatic vessels with tender, enlarged lymph nodes

39

What is usually affected first in lymphangitis?

The humeral group of lymph nodes

40

What can be seen in lymphangitis?

Red, warm and tender streaks visible in the skin of the upper limb

41

What is often a vital tool for staging breast cancers?

Removal and analysis of the axillary lymph nodes

42

What can interruption of lymphatic drainage from the upper limb result in?

Lymphoedema

43

What is lymphoedema?

A condition whereby accumulated lymph in the subcutaneous tissue leads to painful swelling of the upper limb

44

What is at risk of damage during an axillary lymph node dissection?

The long thoracic nerve or thoracodorsal nerve