Knee Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Musculoskeletal System > Knee > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knee Deck (71):
1

What kind of joint is the knee?

Bicondylar type synovial joint

2

What does the knee joint allow for?

Mainly flexion and extension
Small degree of medial and lateral rotation

3

What is the knee joint formed by?

Articulations between the patella, femur and tibia

4

What does the shape of the knee joint mean?

It’s relatively weak, and so relies on muscle and ligaments to ensure stability

5

What does the knee joint consist of?

Two articulations, tibiofemoral and patellofemoral

6

What is involved in the tibiofemoral articulation?

The medial and lateral condyles of the femur articulating with tibia

7

What is involved in the patellofemoral articulation?

The anterior and distal part of the femur articulating with the patella

8

What is the weight-bearing joint of the knee?

The tibiofemoral joint

9

What does the patellofemoral joint allow?

The tendon of the quadriceps femoris (the main extensor of the knee) to be inserted directly over the knee, increasing the efficiency of the muscle

10

What are both joint surfaces of the knee lined with?

Hyaline cartilage

11

What are the joint surfaces of the knee enclosed within?

A single joint cavity

12

Where is the patella formed?

Within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris

13

What is the result of the presence of the patella?

It minimises wear and tear on the tendon

14

What are the medial and lateral menisci?

Fibrocartilage structures in the knee

15

What is the function of the medial and lateral menisci?

To deepen the articular surfaces of the tibia, thus increasing the stability of the joint 
To act as shock absorbers

16

What shape are the menisci?

C shaped

17

Where are the menisci attached?

At both ends of the intercondylar area of the tibia

18

What is the medial meniscus attached to?

The tibial collateral ligament and joint capsule

19

What does any damage to the tibial collateral ligament result in?

Tearing of the medial meniscus

20

Why is the lateral meniscus fairly mobile?

Because its smaller and does not have any extra attachments

21

What is a bursa?

A synovial fluid filled sac

22

Where are bursa found?

Between moving structures in a joint

23

What is the aim of bursa?

To reduce wear and tear on moving structures

24

What bursa are found in the knee joint?

Suprapatella bursa
Prepatella bursa
Infrapatella bursa
Semimembranosus bursa

25

What is the suprapatella bursa?

An extension of the synovial cavity of the knee

26

Where is the prepatella bursa found?

Between the apex of the patella and the skin

27

What is the infrapatella bursa split into?

Deep and superficial

28

Where does the deep infrapatella bursa lie?

Between the tibia and patella ligament

29

Where does the superficial infrapatella bursa lie?

Between the patella ligament and the skin

30

Where is the semimembranosus bursa located?

Posteriorly in the knee joint, between the semimembranosus muscle and the medial head of the gastrocnemius

31

What are the major ligaments in the knee joint?

Patellar ligament
Collateral ligaments 
Cruciate ligaments

32

What is the patellar ligament?

A continuation of the quadriceps femoris tendon distal to the patella

33

What does the patellar ligament attach to?

The tibial tuberosity

34

What are the collateral ligaments?

Two strap-like ligaments, the tibial (medial) collateral ligament and the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament

35

What do the collateral ligaments act to do?

Stabilise the hinge motion of the knee, preventing any medial or lateral movement

36

What shape is the tibial collateral ligament?

Wide and flat

37

Where is the tibial collateral ligament found?

On the medial side of the joint

38

Where does the tibial collateral ligament attach to proximally?

The medial epicondyle of the femur

39

Where does the tibial collateral ligament attach to distally?

The medial surface of the tibia

40

How does the fibular collateral ligament differ from the tibial?

It is thinner and rounder

41

Where does the fibular collateral ligament attach to proximally?

The lateral epicondyle of the femur

42

Where does the fibular collateral ligament attach distally?

To a depression on the lateral surface of the fibular head

43

What do the cruciate ligaments do?

Connect the femur and the tibia, and in doing so cross each other

44

What are the cruciate ligaments?

Anterior cruciate ligament
Posterior cruciate ligament

45

What course does the anterior cruciate ligament take?

Attaches at the anterior intercondylar region of the tibia and ascends posteriorly to attach to the femur, in the intercondylar fossa

46

What does the anterior cruciate ligament do?

Prevents anterior dislocation of the tibia onto the femur

47

What course does the posterior cruciate ligament take?

Attaches at the posterior intercondylar region of the tibia, and ascends anteriorly to attach to the femur in the intercondylar fossa

48

What does the posterior cruciate ligament do?

Prevents posterior dislocation of the tibia onto the femur

49

What are the main movements that the knee joint permits?

Extension 
Flexion 
Lateral rotation 
Medial rotation

50

How is extension at the knee joint produced?

Quadriceps femoris

51

Where does the quadriceps femoris insert that allows it to produce extension at the knee?

The tibial tuberosity

52

What produces flexion at the knee?

Hamstrings, gracilis, sartorius and popliteus

53

What produces lateral rotation at the knee?

Biceps femoris

54

What produces medial rotation at the knee?

Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis, sartorius and popliteus

55

What is the most common pathology affecting the knee joint?

Injury to the collateral ligaments

56

What causes injury to the collateral ligaments?

A force being applied to the side of the knee when the foot is placed on the ground

57

How can damage to the collateral ligaments be assessed?

By asking the patient to medially rotate and laterally rotate the leg

58

What does pain on medial rotation of the leg indicate?

Damage to the medial collateral ligament

59

What does pain on lateral rotation of the leg indicate?

Damage to the lateral ligament

60

What is likely if the tibial collateral ligament is damaged?

That the medial meniscus is torn

61

What can be anterior cruciate ligament be torn by?

Hyperextension of the knee joint 
Application of a large force to the back of the knee with the joint partly flexed

62

How can you test for a town anterior cruciate ligament?

You can perform an anterior drawer test, where you attempt to pull the tibia forward

63

What has happened if the you can pull the tibia forward?

The ligament has been torn

64

What is the most common mechanism of posterior cruciate ligament damage?

The ‘dashboard injury’- when the knee is flexed and a large force is applied to the shins, pushing the tibia posteriorly

65

How else can the posterior cruciate ligament be torn?

Hyperextension of the knee joint 
Damage to the upper part of the tibial tuberosity

66

How is posterior cruciate ligament damage tested for?

The posterior draw test- hold the knee in flexed position, and push the shin posteriorly. If there is movement, the ligament has been torn

67

What can friction between the skin and patella cause?

The prepatella bursa to become inflamed, producing a swelling on the anterior side of the knee, known as housemaids knee

68

What can friction between the skin and tibia cause?

The infrapatella bursa to become inflamed, resulting in whats known as ‘clergyman’s knee’

69

What can damage to the medial collateral ligament cause?

Damage to the medial meniscus, due to its attachment

70

What can rupture the the medial collateral ligament?

A lateral force to the extended knee

71

What happens when the medial collateral ligament is ruptured?

The medial meniscus and the ACL are damaged, producing an ‘unhappy triad'