Arteries of the Upper Limb Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Musculoskeletal System > Arteries of the Upper Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arteries of the Upper Limb Deck (53):
1

Where does the arterial supply to the upper limb begin?

In the chest, as the subclavian artery

2

Where does the right subclavian artery arise from?

The brachiocephalic trunk

3

Where does the left subclavian artery arise from?

Branches directly off the arch of the aorta

4

When do the subclavian arteries enter the axilla?

When they cross the lateral edge of the 1st rib

5

What are the subclavian arteries called when they enter the axilla?

The axillary arteries

6

Where does the axillary artery pass?

Through the axilla, just underneath the pectoralis minor muscle

7

What is the axillary artery enclosed in?

The axillary sheath

8

What arises from the axillary arteries?

The posterior and anterior circumflex humeral arteries
Subscapular artery

9

Where do the posterior and anterior circumflex humeral arteries, and the subscapular artery arise?

At the level of the humeral surgical neck

10

What do the posterior and anterior circumflex humeral arteries do?

Circle posteriorly around the humerus to supply the shoulder region

11

What does the axillary artery become?

The brachial artery

12

Where does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?

At the level of the teres major muscle

13

What is an aneurysm?

A dilation of a blood vessel to more than twice its original size

14

How common are axillary artery aneurysm?

Rare

15

What can axillary artery aneurysms occur as a result of?

Atherosclerosis
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Trauma

16

What can happen with axillary artery aneurysms?

The dilated portion of the axillary artery can compress the brachial plexus

17

What is the result of the compression of the brachial plexus by an aneurysm?

Produces neurological symptoms such as paresthesia and muscle weakness

18

What is the definitive treatment for an axillary artery aneurysm?

Surgical- involves removing the aneurysm and reconstructing the vessel wall using a graft

19

When does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?

When it reaches the lower border of the teres major

20

Why is the brachial artery important?

It is the main source of blood for the arm

21

What does the brachial artery give rise to?

The profunda brachii

22

Where does the brachial artery give rise to the profunda brachii?

Immediately distal to the teres major

23

What is the profunda brachii?

The deep artery of the arm

24

Where does the profunda brachii travel?

Along the posterior surface of the humerus, running in the radial groove

25

What does the profunda brachii supply?

Structures in the posterior aspect of the arm

26

How does the profunda brachii terminate?

By contributing to a network of vessels

27

Where does the brachial artery descend down the arm?

Immediately posterior to the median nerve

28

Where does the brachial artery terminate?

As it crosses the cubital fossa, underneath the brachialis muscle

29

How does the brachial artery terminate?

By bifurcating into the radial and ulnar arteries

30

What protects the arm from temporary or partial occlusion of the brachial artery?

The arm has a relatively god anastomotic supply

31

What happens if the artery is completely blocked, or severed?

It is a medical emergency

32

Why is blockage or severance of the brachial artery a medical emergency?

The resulting ischaemia of the forearm can cause necrosis and paralysis of the muscles in the forearm

33

What happens when there is necrosis and paralysis of forearm muscles?

The affected muscles are replaced to some degree by scar tissue, and shorten considerably, causing a characteristic flexion deformity called Volkmann’s contracture

34

What does the radial artery supply?

The posterior aspect of the forearm

35

Where does the ulnar artery supply?

The anterior aspect of the forearm

36

What happens to the radial and ulnar arteries?

They anastomose in the hand, by forming two arches, the superficial palmar arch and the deep palmar arch

37

Why does the hand have a very good blood supply?

Because it has many anastomosing arteries

38

What does the good blood supply of the hand allow?

For the hand to be perfused when grasping, or applying pressure

39

What is true of a good majority of the arteries in the hand?

They are superficial

40

What does a lot of the arteries in the hand being superficial allow for?

Heat loss when needed

41

What happens to the ulnar and radial arteries in the hand?

They interconnect to form two arches, from which branches to the digits emerge

42

What does the radial artery supply in the hand?

Contributes mainly to supply of the thumb and the lateral side of the index finger

43

What does the ulnar artery supply in the hand/

Contributes mainly to the supply of the rest of the digits (not the thumb) and the medial side of the index finger

44

How does the ulnar artery move into the hand?

Anteriorly to the flexor retinaculum, and laterally to the ulnar nerve

45

What happens to the ulnar artery in the hand?

It divides into two branches, the superficial palmar arch, and the deep palmar branch

46

What arises form the superficial palmar arch?

The common palmar digital arteries

47

What do the common palmar digital arteries supply?

The digits

48

What does the superficial palmar arch anastomose with?

A branch of the radial artery

49

Where is the superficial palmar arch found?

Anteriorly to the flexor tendons in the hand, but just deep to the palmar aponeurosis

50

How does the radial artery enter the hand?

Dorsally, crossing the floor of the anatomical snuffbox

51

What happens to the radial artery once in the hand?

It turns medially and moves between the heads of the adductor pollicis

52

What forms the deep palmar arch?

The radial artery anastomosing with the deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery

53

What does the deep palmar arch give rise to?

Five arteries supplying the digits