Femur Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Musculoskeletal System > Femur > Flashcards

Flashcards in Femur Deck (74):
1

What is the femur?

The only bone in the thigh

2

What is the femur classed as?

A long bone

3

What is the main function of the femur?

To transmit forces from the tibia to the hip joint

4

What does the femur act as?

The place of origin and attachment of many muscles and ligaments

5

What can the femur be split into?

Three areas, proximal, shaft, and distal

6

What does the proximal area of the femur form?

The hip joint with the pelvis

7

What does the proximal area of the femur consist of?

A head and neck
Two bony processes called trochanters
Bony ridges connecting the trochanters

8

What does the head of the femur have?

A smooth surface, with a depression on the medial surface

9

What is the depression on the head of the femur for?

Attachment of the ligament of the head

10

What happens to the head of the femur at the hip joint?

It articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis

11

What does the neck of the femur do?

Connects the head of the femur with the shaft

12

What shape is the neck of the femur?

Cylindrical

13

In what direction does the neck of the femur project?

Superior and medial

14

What does the angle of projection of the neck of the femur allow for?

An increased range of movement at the hip joint

15

What is the greater trochanter?

A projection of bone

16

Where does the greater trochanter originate from?

The anterior shaft, just lateral to where the neck joins

17

How is the greater trochanter angled?

Superiorly and posteriorly

18

Where can the greater trochanter be found?

Both on the anterior and posterior sides of the femur

19

What is the greater trochanter the site of?

Attachment of the abductor and lateral rotator muscles of the leg

20

How does the lesser trochanter differ from the greater trochanter?

It is much smaller

21

Where does the lesser trochanter project from?

The posteromedial side of the shaft, just inferior to the neck-shaft junction

22

What is the lesser trochanter the site of?

Attachment of the psoas major and iliacus muscles

23

What is the intertrochanteric line?

A ridge of bone

24

Where does the intertrochanteric line run?

In an inferomedial direction on the anterior surface of the femur, connecting the two trochanters together

25

What attaches to the intertrochanteric line?

The iliofemoral ligament

26

What is the iliofemoral ligament?

A very strong ligament of the hip joint

27

What happens after the intertrochanteric line passes the lesser trochanter on the posterior surface?

It becomes known as the pectineal line

28

What is the intertrochanteric crest?

A ridge of bone that connects the two trochanters together

29

Where is the intertrochanteric crest located?

On the posterior surface of the femur

30

What is found on the intertrochanteric crest?

A rounded tubercle on its superior half, called the quadrate tubercle

31

What is the quadrate tubercle the site for?

Attachment of the quadratus femoris

32

Why are fractures of the femoral neck a very good predictor of mortality?

Within a year, 1/3 of people with a hip fracture will die

33

What can fractures of the femoral neck be classified into clinically?

Intracapsular fracture 
Extracapsular fracture

34

Who are intracapsular fractures more common in?

The elderly, especially women

35

What are intracapsular fractures the result of?

A minor trip or stumble

36

Where does an intracapsular fracture occur?

Within the capsule of the hip joint

37

What can an intracapsular fracture cause?

Damage to the medial femoral circumflex artery and therefore avascular necrosis of the femoral head

38

What happens in an intracapsular fracture?

The distal fragment is pulled upwards, and rotated laterally

39

How can an intracapsular fracture manifest clinically?

Shorter leg length, with toes pointing laterally

40

Who are extracapsular fractures more common in?

Young and middle aged people

41

What happens in an extracapsular fracture?

The leg is shortened and laterally rotated
The blood supply to the head of the femur is intact, and so no avascular necrosis can occur

42

How does the shaft of the femur descend?

In a slight medial direction

43

What is the result of the medial descent of the femur shaft?

It brings the knees closer to the body’s centre of gravity, increasing stability

44

What is found on the posterior surface of the femoral shaft?

Roughened ridges of bone called the linea aspera

45

What does the linea aspera become?

The medial border becomes the pectineal line 
The lateral border becomes the gluteal tuberoisty

46

Where does the linea aspera become the pectineal line and gluteal tuberosity?

Proximally

47

What happens at the gluteal tuberosity?

The gluteus maximus attaches

48

What happens to the linea aspera distally?

It widens and forms the floor of the popliteal fossa 
The medial and lateral borders form the medial and lateral supracondylar lines

49

Where does the medial supracondyle line stop?

At the adductor tubercle

50

What happens at the adductor tubercle?

The adductor magnus attaches

51

How common are fractures of the femur shaft?

Relatively uncommon

52

What do fractures of the femur shaft require?

A lot of force

53

What are fractures of the femoral shaft usually a result of?

Traumatic injury

54

Give an example of a classification of femoral shaft fracture

Spiral fracture

55

How can a spiral fracture present?

Leg shortening

56

What is the loss of leg length in spiral fractures due to?

The fragments overriding, pulled by the attached muscles

57

What is the result of the mechanism of spiral fracture injury usually being high energy?

The surrounding soft tissues may also be damaged

58

Give an example of a possible sequelae of a femoral shaft fracture?

A femoral nerve palsy

59

What is important to ensure when the femoral shaft is fractured?

To ensure the blood supply from the femoral artery hasn’t been compromised

60

What is the distal end of the femur characterised by?

The presence of the medial and lateral condyles

61

What do the medial and lateral condyles articulate with?

The tibia and patella

62

What is formed by the articulation of the condyles and the tibia and patella?

The knee joint

63

What are the medial and lateral condyles of the femur?

Rounded areas at the end of the femur

64

What do the posterior and inferior surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles articulate with?

The tibia and menisci of the knee

65

What do the anterior surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles articulate with?

The patella

66

What are the medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur?

Bony elevations on the non articular areas of the condyles

67

What are the medial and lateral epicondyles the site of?

Attachment of some muscles and collateral ligaments of the knee

68

What is the intercondylar fossa?

A depression found on the posterior surface of the femur

69

Where is the intercondylar fossa?

Between the two condyles

70

What does the intercondylar fossa contain?

Two facets for attachment of internal knee ligaments

71

Where is the facet for attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament?

Medial wall of the intercondylar fossa

72

What is the facet for attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament?

A large, rounded, flat face where the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee attaches

73

Where is the facet for attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament found?

The lateral wall of the intercondylar fossa

74

How does the facet for attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament differ from the posterior?

It is smaller