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Flashcards in Arthrology Deck (45):
1

Define joint and classify joints into two categories based on the number of articulating skeletal components and three categories based on the type of uniting connective tissue and presence of a joint cavity.

Joint: allow various degrees of movement; formed when two or more bones or cartilages are united to each other or to teeth by connective tissue proper or cartilage

1. Simple Joint: only two skeletal components (bone-bone, bone-cartilage, cartilage-cartilage)
2. Composite Joint: three or more skeletal components
Three major categories -
Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial Joints

2

What are the three major categories of joints?

Fibrous Joints (synarthroses), Cartilaginous Joints, and Synovial Joints (diarthroses)

3

Lists the major subtypes of the three major joints and what distinguishes each type.

Fibrous Joints

(make sure to list the 4 kinds of sutures)

Syndesmosis -
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper
Movement: essentially none

- 6 (1 in antebrachium, 1 in crus, 1 in middle ear)

Suture -
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper
Movement: essentially none

4 kinds:
- planar suture
- serrated suture
- squamous suture
- schindylesis

Gomphosis -
Uniting Connective Tissue: peridontium
Movement: essentially none
- dentoalveolar jts.
- peg joints

4

Lists the major subtypes of the three major joints and what distinguishes each type.

Cartilaginous Joints

(Make sure to note the subdivisions of synchondrosis and symphysis)

Synchondrosis (hyaline cartilaginous jts.) -
Uniting Connective Tissue: Hyaline Cartilage
Movement: little or none

- xiphisternal synchondrosis

Symphysis (cartilaginous jts) -
Uniting Connective Tissue: Fibrocartilage
Movement: little or none

- manubriosternal symphysis
- pubic symphysis
- intevertebral symphyses

5

Lists the major subtypes of the three major joints and what distinguishes each type.

Synovial Joints (Diarthroses)

(PT) BEGSS

Spheroidal (ball and socket)
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper (have an articular cavity)
Movement: "freely" moveable

Ellipsoid (condylar)
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper (have an articular cavity)
Movement: "freely" moveable

Bicondylar (two rounded surfaces, two depressions)
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper (have an articular cavity)
Movement: "freely" moveable

Ginglymus (hinge)
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper (have an articular cavity)
Movement: "freely" moveable

Trochoid (pivot)Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper (have an articular cavity)
Movement: "freely" moveable

Sellar (saddle)
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper (have an articular cavity)
Movement: "freely" moveable

Planar (gliding)
Uniting Connective Tissue: c.t. proper (have an articular cavity)
Movement: "freely" moveable

6

State the functional roles of synovial fluid

This fluid lubricates and nourishes the relatively thin, avascular articular cartilage on the surfaces of the articulating skeletal components

7

Define ligament in reference to joints.

Fibrous connective tissue bands and cords extending from one skeletal component to another.

8

Differentiate three types of ligaments based on their positional relationship to the fibrous part of the joint capsule.

1. Capsular ligaments: ligaments that consist of regional thickening in the fibrous layer of the joint capsule
2. Extracapsular ligaments: those that are well developed, physically distinct bands of connective tissue located outside of the fibrous layer of the articular capsule
3. Intracapsular ligaments: ligaments internal to the fibrous part of the joint capsule

9

List the joints of the body that have intracapsular ligaments and the ones that contain menisci or articular discs.

For articular discs remember (ARTS)

Joints that have intracapsular ligaments:
coxal, genual, tarsal, carpal joints, and joint of the head of the rib

Joints that contain articular discs:
radiocarpal joints, acromioclavicular joints, sternoclavicular joints, temporomandibular joints

- articular discs completely separate the articular cartilage

Joints that contain articular menisci:
genual joint

-articular menisci (half - moon/ c- shape) don't completely separate femoral condyles from tibial condyles

10

Explain why joints that contain menisci or articular discs are not considered to be fibrocartilaginous joints (since that is the material composing the menisci/discs)

They are not fibrocartilaginous joints because they are fibrocartilaginous structures between the articular surfaces of the skeletal components. Their purpose is to fill in the gaps and help spread synovial fluid over the articular surfaces for lubrications and for nourishment of the chondrocytes.

11

Divide the joints of the axial skeleton into three categories (joints of the head, joints of the vertebrae, and thoracic cage) and name the joints in each area.

Joints of the Head

Joints of the Head:
- sutures
- synchondroses (PISSS)
1. petro - occipital syn.
2. intra - occipital syn.
3. spheno- occipital syn.
4. spheno - petrosal syn.
5. spheno - ethmoid syn.
- all of the dentoalveolar joints (gomphoses)
- the temporomandibular joints
- atlanto - occipital joint
- joints associated with the auditory ossicles

12

Divide the joints of the axial skeleton into three categories (joints of the head, joints of the vertebrae, and thoracic cage) and name the joints in each area.

Joints of the vertebrae

Joints of the Vertebral Column:
- atlanto - axial joint
- zygapophyseal joints
- intervertebral symphyses

13

Divide the joints of the axial skeleton into three categories (joints of the head, joints of the vertebrae, and thoracic cage) and name the joints in each area.

Joints of the Thoracic cage

Joints of the Thoracic cage:
(associated with the ribs and sternum)

- joints of the heads of the ribs
- costotransverse joints
- costochondral joint
- sternochondral joints
- interchondral joints
- manubriosternal symphysis
- xiphisternal synchondrosis

14

Explain why people are measurably shorter after sitting or standing for several hours (and in senility)

Because the nucleus pulposus (gelatinous core of an intervertebral disc) slowly compresses during periods of sitting or standing, humans are measurably taller after lying down for a period of time (sleeping).

15

Name the joints of the superior limb including the subdivisions of the elbow and carpal joints.

Joints of the pectoral girdle

Sternoclavicular jt.
Acromioclavicular jt.

16

Name the joints of the superior limb including the subdivisions of the elbow and carpal joints.

Joints of the free part of the superior limb

Shoulder (humeral) jt.
Elbow (cubital) jt.
- Humero-ulnar jt.
- Humeroradial jt.
- Proximal radio-ulnar jt.
Radio-ulnar syndesmoses
Distal radio-ulnar jt.
Carpal jts.
- Radiocarpal jt.
- Intercarpal jts.
- Joints of the pisiform bone
- Middle carpal jt.
- Carpometacarpal jts. (1-5)
Intermetacarpal jts. (three total)
Metacarpophalangeal jts.
Interphalangeal joint of the thumb

17

Which joint in the superior limb is not synovial?

radio - ulnar syndesmosis

18

Name the joints of the inferior limb including the subdivisions of the tarsal joint.

Joints of the pelvic girdle:

Joints of the pelvic girdle:
Pubic symphysis
Sacroiliac joint

19

Which joints of the inferior limb are not synovial?

tibiofibular syndesmosis and the pubic symphysis

20

Name the joints of the inferior limb including the subdivisions of the tarsal joint.

Joints of the free part of the inferior limb

Coxal (hip) joint
Genual (knee) joint
Tibiofibular joint
Tibiofibular syndesmosis
Tarsal joints
- Talocrurual joint
- Intertarsal joints
- Transverse tarsal joint
- Tarsometatarsal joints (1-5)
Intermetatarsal joints
Metatarsophalangeal joints (digital joints of the foot)
Interphalangeal joints (digital joints of the foot)


21

Define and properly use extension.

Extension: an increase in the size of a flexor angle
ex) protruding the chest

22

Define and properly use flexion.

Flexion: implies a decrease in size of the flexor angle or a joint in an anterior/posterior plane
ex) rolling one's body into a ball

23

Define and properly use dorsiflexion.

Dorsiflexion: at the tarsal joint; as when easing off the accelerator pedal

24

Define and properly use plantar flexion

Plantar flexion: at the tarsal joint; rising up on ones toes

25

Define and properly use abduction

Abduction: movement of a whole limb, hand, or digit away from a point of reference

- movement of a whole limb, hand, or digit, in a lateral/medial orientation is termed abduction or addcution

26

Define and properly use adduction

Adduction: movement of a whole limb, hand, or digit toward that reference

27

Define and properly use rotation

Rotation: movement of a body part around its long axis
ex) shoulder joint

28

Define and properly use pronation

Pronation: internal (medial) rotation that turns the palmar aspect of the manus medially and then posteriorly

29

Define and properly use supination

Supination: external (lateral) rotation which turns a pronated manus back toward the normal anatomical position

30

Define and properly use inversion

Inversion: elevation of the medial border of the foot such that the plantar surface is directed slightly medially

31

Define and properly use eversion

Eversion: elevation of the lateral border such that the plantar surface is directed somewhat laterally

32

Define and properly use protraction

Protraction: movement of the mandible or of a whole limb anteriorly

33

Define and properly use retraction

Retraction: posterior movement of the mandible or whole limb

34

Define and properly use circumduction

Circumduction: circular motions involving a finger, hand, foot, or whole limb such that a cone shape is described (form, outlined) in space

35

Note the position of the flexor angle (surface) of each appendicular joint.

Free part of the superior limb: flexor angle is located on the anterior aspect of all joints
Free part of the inferior limb: flexor angle is anterior in the coxal and tarsal joints but is posterior or plantar in all others
Vertebral Column: the flexor angle is located anteriorly in all joints

36

Explain how bone, muscles, and joints interact to form lever systems for locomotion.

4 components are needed for a functional lever system. Rigid bar to server as LEVER ARM, a point of rotation along the bar called the FULCRUM, and and applied FORCE, and a RESISTANCE.

Lever arm = skeletal components
Applied Force = muscle contraction or gravity
Resistance = gravitational pull by intertia of body parts
Fulcrum = joint or where limb contacts a surface

37

Understand and be able to use the moment are equation for lever systems in equilibrium
F x D(F) = R x D(R)

F = force
R = resistance
D(F) = distance from the force to the fulcrum
D(R) = distance from the resistance to the fulcrum

38

what is synotosis or ankylosis?

a bony union created when skeletal components are joined together by osseous tissue. any joint becomes a synotosis if bone replaces c.t. proper or cartilage that was originally present

39

what are the 5 parts of a synovial joint?

articular (joint) capsule, articular (joint) cavity, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, articular cartilage

40

Define arthritis and differentiate its common subtypes.

Arthritis: joint inflammation
- Traumatic arthritis: physical damage to joints
- Arthrocentesis: joint puncture
- Degenerative arthritis: age-related
- Arthrocentesis: joint puncture
- Infectious arthritis: joint invaded by infectious organisms
- Rheumatoid arthritis: defects in connective tissue metabolism
- Gouty Arthritis: synovial joint inflammation resulting from deposit of urate crystals

41

Define luxation and subluxation and explain the use of directional terms that are often used to describe these conditions.

Luxation: completely out of alignment
Subluxation: partial dislocation

Directional Terms: refer to the relative position of the distal joint component in relation to the proximal joint component

42

Explain why pain or paralysis can result from intevertebral disc disease.

nucleus pulposes of an intevertebral disc put pressure on adjacent spinal nerves or on the spinal cord itself by bulging or protruding

43

Kyphosis

hunched backed posture

44

Lordosis

protrusion of chest; exageration of lumbar curvature

45

Scoliosis

lateral curvature of the vertebral column