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Flashcards in Female Repro Deck (19):
1

List the major components of the female reproductive system in the order that they are encountered by an ovum.

1. Ovaries
2. Uterine Tubes
3. Uterus
4. Vagina
5. Vulva

2

List the five general functions of the female reproductive system.

1. Production of female sex cells

- ova through meiotic division called oogenesis

2. Production of female sex hormones

-estrogen (produced by granulosa cells of developing follicles)

. responsible for female secondary sex characteristics

-progesterone (hormone of pregnancy)

3. Copulation and Fertilization

4. Protection and nutrition of the developing conceptus

5. Transmission of the fetus

3

Diagram and label a vesicular (mature) ovarian follicle.

* each ovary consists of a developing ovum surrounded by numerous cells termed follicular epithelium (granulosa cells) - THESE PRODUCE ESTROGEN

1. Primordial Ovarian Follicle

- developing ovum surrounded by single layer of flattened follicular cells

2. Primary Ovarian Follicle

- developing ovum surrounded by one or more layers of cuboidal follicular cells
- those are surrounded by theca

3. Secondary Ovarian Follicle

- develop fluid-filled space called follicular antrum
- developing ovum surrounded by several layers of follicular cells called cumulus oophorus

4. Tertiary (Vesicular) Ovarian Follicules

- layers of follicular cells = corona radiata
- corona radiata separated from ova by membrane called zona pellucida

During ovulation the ovum, zona pellucida, and corona radiata break through tunica albuginea and visceral peritoneum to enter ovarian bursa (space around ovary)

4

Schematically diagram and label oogenesis.

1. primitive sex cells are derived from endoderm

2. migrate into ovaries to form oogonia

3. oogonia undergo mitosis to form PRIMARY OOCYTES

4. Primary oocytes are contained within PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES

5. Primary oocytes undergo meiosis but THEIR DIVISION IS ARRESTED AT PROPHASE

6. Primordial Follicles become PRIMARY FOLLICLES which still contain PRIMARY OOCYTES

7. Primary follicle will turn to secondary, vestibular follicle etc.

-primary oocyte in a vesicular follicle completes first meiotic division to form SECONDARY OOCTYE AND 1ST POLAR BODY

8. Secondary oocyte IS ARRESTED AT METAPHASE until fertilization occurs

9. Secondary oocyte goes through meiosis II and become DEFINITIVE OVUM and SECOND POLAR BODY

- the nucleus of the ovum and the sperm will unite to form ZYGOTE (2N)

(look on pg. 732 for the chart)

5

Discuss the ovarian cycle including ovulation; the sequential appearance of corpus hemorrhagicum, corpus luteum, and corpus albicans; and the hormonal changes that lead to menstruation.

1. one follicle completes its development each month

2. OVULATION occurs when the corona radiata and secondary oocyte break through the ovarian surface

3. A small amount of hemorrhage occurs and the empty follicle at this stage = CORPUS HEMORRHAGICUM

4. This soon forms a yellow- colored substance called CORPUS LETEUM

- it produces some estrogen and high levels of progesterone
-progesterone causes the lining in the uterus to become conductive to pregnancy

5. If no fertilization occurs it regresses to become CORPUS ALBICANS

- it is a white c.t. "scar"

- the build up of endometrium in the uterus made to house a zygote will sluff off = MENSTRUATION because of the decreasing levels in progesterone

6. If fertilization does occur chorionic gonadotropin produced by developing placenta tell the corpus leteum to keep producing progesterone (for 5-6 mo.)


(look at pg. 737)

6

Schematically diagram and label oogenesis.

1. primitive sex cells are derived from endoderm

2. migrate into ovaries to form oogonia

3. oogonia undergo mitosis to form PRIMARY OOCYTES

4. Primary oocytes are contained within PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES

5. Primary oocytes undergo meiosis but THEIR DIVISION IS ARRESTED AT PROPHASE

6. Primordial Follicles become PRIMARY FOLLICLES which contain SECONDARY OOCYTE

7. Primary follicle will turn to secondary, tertiary follicle and so on BUT THEY STILL CONTAIN SECONDARY OOCYTE

8. Secondary oocyte IS ARRESTED AT METAPHASE until fertilization occurs

9. Secondary oocyte goes through meiosis II and become DEFINITIVE OVUM

- the nucleus of the ovum and the sperm will unite to form ZYGOTE (2N)

(look on pg. 732 for the chart)

7

Define the three layers of the uterine wall and diagram the major landmarks of the uterus.


*Cervical glands within the wall of uterus secrete a mucous plug during pregnancy which forms a barrier to protect the conceptus from ascending vaginal infections

1. Perimetrium

- serous membrane which invests the outer surface of the uterus (visceral peritoneum)

2. Myometrium

- smooth m.t. layers

3. Endometrium

- mucosal lining
- only layer involved with menstrual cycle

* if an egg isn't fertilized after ovulation the corpus luteum regresses and initiates falling levels of progesterone

3 parts to Menstrual Cycle:

1. Menstrual Phase: sloughing of endometrium which causes a bloody discharge

2. Proliferative Phase: endometrial tissue regrows

3. Secretory Phase: occurs from ovulation to next menstrual phase

-endometrium increases vascularity and glandular secretions in preparation for a potential pregnancy

* first menstrual cycle = menarche

8

Define the three layers of the uterine wall and diagram the major landmarks of the uterus.


*Cervical glands within the wall of uterus secrete a mucous plug during pregnancy which forms a barrier to protect the conceptus from ascending vaginal infections

1. Perimetrium

- serous membrane which invests the outer surface of the uterus

2. Myometrium

- smooth m.t. layers

3. Endometrium

- mucosal lining
- only layer involved with menstrual cycle

* if an egg isn't fertilized after ovulation the corpus luteum regresses and initiates falling levels of progesterone

3 parts to Menstrual Cycle:

1. Menstrual Phase: sloughing of endometrium which causes a bloody discharge

2. Proliferative Phase: endometrial tissue regrows

3. Secretory Phase: occurs from ovulation to next menstrual phase

-endometrium increases vascularity and glandular secretions in preparation for a potential pregnancy

* first menstrual cycle = menarche

9

Discuss the ovarian cycle including ovulation; the sequential appearance of corpus hemorrhagicum, corpus luteum, and corpus albicans; and the hormonal changes that lead to menstruation.

1. one follicle completes its development each month

2. OVULATION occurs when the corona radiata and secondary oocyte break through the ovarian surface

3. A small amount of hemorrhage occurs and the empty follicle at this stage = CORPUS HEMORRHAGICUM

4. This soon forms a yellow- colored substance called CORPUS LETEUM

- it produces some estrogen and high levels of progesterone
-progesterone causes the lining in the uterus to become conductive to pregnancy

5. If no fertilization occurs it regresses to become CORPUS ALBICANS

- it is a "scar"

- the build up of endometrium in the uterus made to house a zygote will sluff off = MENSTRUATION because of the decreasing levels in progesterone

6. If fertilization does occur chorionic gonadotropin produced by developing placenta tell the corpus leteum to keep producing progesterone (for 5-6 mo.)


(look at pg. 737)

10

State the two unofficial names for the uterine tube and indicate its functions in reproduction.

- "Fallopian Tube" or "Oviducts"

- when the secondary oocyte breaks through the ovary, it enters the ovarian bursa

- infundibulum of the ovary contains fimbriae of the ovary

- the fimbriae guide the ovum into the rest of the uterine tube where it then goes to the uterus

initial part of uterus beyond infundibulum = ampulla of uterine tube

portion near the uterus = isthmus of the uterine tube

part buried in uteral wall = ureteral part of the uterine tube

* in addition to transporting ova the uterine tube also transports sperm via peristaltic motions

11

Define the three layers of the uterine wall and diagram the major landmarks of the uterus.

1. Perimetrium

- serous membrane which invests the outer surface of the uterus

2. Myometrium

- smooth m.t. layers

3. Endometrium

- mucosal lining
- only layer involved with menstrual cycle

* if an egg isn't fertilized after ovulation the corpus luteum regresses and initiates falling levels of progesterone

3 parts to Menstrual Cycle:

1. Menstrual Phase: sloughing of endometrium which causes a bloody discharge

2. Proliferative Phase: endometrial tissue regrows

3. Secretory Phase: occurs from ovulation to next menstrual phase

-endometrium increases vascularity and glandular secretions in preparation for a potential pregnancy

* first menstrual cycle = menarche

12

Differentiate the peritoneal structures that suspend the internal female reproductive organs.

Broad Ligament of the Uterus: double-layered connecting peritoneum that supports the female reproductive system

contains:

1. Mesometrium - connects to uterus

2. Mesosalpinx - connects to uterine tubes

3. Mesovarium - suspends the ovaries

13

Differentiate vaginal lumen and vaginal cavity.

Vaginal Lumen: the space inside of the vagina

Vaginal Cavity: the space between the visceral and parietal layers of the vaginal tunic IN MALES ONLY

14

Differentiate vaginal lumen and vaginal cavity.

Vaginal Lumen: the space inside of the vagina

Vaginal Cavity: the space between the visceral and parietal layers of the vaginal tunic IN MALES ONLY

* the vagina can stretch due to vaginal rugae during coitus (sexual intercourse) and parturition (giving birth)

15

List the structures included in the vulvua (pudendum femininum)

- Mons Pubis: pad of fatty tissue over pubic crest
- Major Labium of the Pudendum: left and right folds of skin
. have a cleft of the Pudendum: space between them

- Minor Labium of the Pudendum: membranous folds
. extend around clitoris to form its prepuce

- Clitoris: female homologue of the penis

(has cura, body, and glans clitoris)

. erectile body in crus is called corpus cavernosum clitoridis

- Vaginal Vestibule: space into which urethra, vagina, and vestibular glands open
. vestibular glands produce fluid which lubricates the vulva prior to intromission

- Vestibular Bulbs: L/R bodies of erectile tissue which are embedded in walls of vestibule
. engorge with blood during sex

16

List the structures included in the vulvua (pudendum femininum)

1. Mons Pubis: pad of fatty tissue over pubic crest

2. Major Labium of the Pudendum: left and right folds of skin

. have a cleft of the Pudendum: space between them

3. Minor Labium of the Pudendum: membranous folds

. extend around clitoris to form its prepuce

4. Clitoris: female homologue of the penis

(has cura, body, and glans clitoris)

. erectile body in crus is called corpus cavernosum clitoridis

5. Vaginal Vestibule: space into which urethra, vagina, and vestibular glands open

. vestibular glands produce fluid which lubricates the vulva prior to intromission

6. Vestibular Bulbs: L/R bodies of erectile tissue which are embedded in walls of vestibule

. engorge with blood during sex

17

Explain how an ectopic pregnancy can occur in a uterine tube and in the peritoneal cavity.

Ectopic pregnancy: implantation of blastocyst in some location other than uterus

- it is usually in a uterine tube (tubal pregnancy) but can occur in places like the peritoneal cavity; it's very rare

18

Explain how an ectopic pregnancy can occur in a uterine tube and in the peritoneal cavity.

Ectopic pregnancy: implantation of blastocyst in some location other than uterus

- it is usually in a uterine tube (tubal pregnancy) but can occur in places like the peritoneal cavity (very rare)

- enlargement of the conceptus causes pain and can cause rupture and hemorrhage

19

Differentiate amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, PMS, menorrhagia, and metrorrhagia.

Amenorrhea - lack of cycles

*normal before puberty, during pregnancy, and after menopause (can also occur during periods of severe physical or emotional stress

Dysmenorrhea - painful menstruation characterized by severe menstrual cramps

PMS (pre-menstrual syndrome) - hormonal changes prior to menstruation cause physical and emotional changes

Menorrhagia - excessive uterine bleeding

Metrorrhagia - periodic hemorrhage between regular periods