Flashcards in Basic and Appendicular Osteology (L5) Deck (25)
Discuss bone tissue including its organic and inorganic components, its three kinds of cells, four kinds of lamellae, and histological architecture.
Osteoid: ORGANIC part of the matrix, combination of collagenous fibers and ground substance
Hydroxyapatite: INORGANIC mineral portion of bone containing forms of calcium phosphate
Osteonal (concentric) lamellae
External circumferential lamellae
Internal circumferential lamellae
Two types of bone tissue:
Compact (cortical) bone - "dense" bone, solid forms majority of the substance of most bones
Spongy (trabecular) bone - "cancellous" bone, lends strength without excessive bulk
Why is interstitial lamellae always older than adjacent concentric lamellae?
The osteoclast drills and forms new osteons on top of it.
Differentiate bone tissue from named bones by listing the tissues found in any names bone in addition to bone tissue.
Connective tissue proper
Simple squamous epithelium
Bone Marrow Tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue
State the physical functions of the bones and bone tissue.
Body shape - allows permanent shape and upright posture
Protection - encasement of brain, thoracic, and pelvic organs
Locomotion - interaction with skeletal muscles to produce body movement
State the metabolic functions of the bones and bone tissue.
Hemopoiesis - formations of RBC's and many types of WBC's (Red bone marrow)
Fat depository - a normal metaplastic change with age (yellow bone marrow)
Calcium/phosphorus storage - within the hydroxyapatite (cortex, cortical bone)
Classify the bones of the skeleton into two groups by position and five groups by shape.
Groups by position: Appendicular Skeleton, Axial Skeleton
Groups by shape: Long bones, Short bones, Flat bones, Irregular bones, Sesamoid bones
Bone shape types found in the appendicular skeleton.
Long bones, short bones, flat bones, and sesamoid bones
Bone shape types found in the axial skeleton.
Irregular bones and flat bones
What features are found in long bones ONLY?
Epiphysis and diaphysis
Label the features of a typical long bone.
epiphysis, diaphysis, periosteum, endosteum, medullary cavity, perforating fibers, nutrient foramina, nutrient canals, articular cartilage, red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow, gelatinous bone marrow, cortex (bone tissue between the endosteum and periosteum)
Name the bones of the superior limb and classify them by shape.
Clavicle and Scapula (Flat bones)
Humerus, Radius, Ulna, 5 metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges (Long Bones)
8 carpal bones (short bones)
2 sesamoid bones (at the base of the thumb)
What is the function of the pectoral girdle?
It supports the free parts of the superior limbs and provides extensive attachment for muscles which attach the limb to the trunk.
What are the bones that form the pectoral girdle? Which ones belong to the appendicular skeleton?
1. The 2 clavicles, 2 scapula, and the sternum
2. The clavicles and scapula belong to the appendicular skeleton
Define phalanx, phalanges, and digits.
Phalanx (singular form) of the bones within the digits
Phalanges - bones within the digits
Digit - everything; the bones, muscles, tissues, nerves, etc.
Explain why three phalanges comprise a digit is false but most digits contain three phalanges is true.
It is false because the first digit (thumb) only has two phalanges while most others contain three.
Name the bones of the inferior limb and classify them by shape.
Ox coxae - one flat bone
Femur bone, tibia, fibula, five metatarsal bones, and 14 phalanges - Long bones
7 Tarsal bones - short bones
3 sesamoid bones (two at the base of the big toe and the patella)
State the function of the pelvic girdle, list the bones that form it, and indicate which ones belong to the appendicular skeleton.
1. It supports the free parts of the inferior limbs and is a site of origin for muscles which act on the limb.
2. The bones that form it are the ossa coxae and the bony sacrum
3. Ossa coxae
Differentiate the major (greater, false) pelvis from the minor (lessor, true) pelvis.
The narrow portion of the pelvic girde is called the minor (lesser or true) pelvis.
The wider flair of the bone above it which constitutes the major (greater or false) pelvis.
List the bones that fuse to form the os coxae.
Ilium, ischium, and pubis
Compare the phalanges of the foot to those of the hand and identify any given phalanx by using proximal, middle, or distal (as appropriate) and state the number or name of the digit of which it is a part.
14 phalanges form the skeleton within the toes. These resemble their counterparts in the manus with each digit having three phalanges (proximal, middle, distal) except of the big toe which lacks a middle phalanx. Each phalanx in the pes has a proximally located base and body. Distally the proximal and middle phalanges end in heads and the distal phalanges end in tuberosities.
Note which appendicular bones have "bone" in their name and which do not.
These have bone in their name:
- carpal bones
- metacarpal bones
- Femur bone
- tarsal bones
- metatarsal bones
- sesamoid bones
What is "DAMN IT"
Define osteomalacia and osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis: excessive skeletal demineralization
Osteomalacia: vitamin D deficiency
What components are found in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue?
- collagenous fibers
- ground substance