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Flashcards in Integumentary Deck (27):
1

Name the three major components of the integumentary system.

1. Skin (and its associated glands)

2. Hair

3. Nails

*these organs are collectively called the common integument

2

State the functions of the integumentary system.

1. Thermoregulation - increasing or decreasing blood flow to the deep layer of the skin when the core temp. of the body increases or decreases

- sweat also prevents overheating

2. Hydroregulation - prevent desiccation of the body

3. Physical and chemical protection -

. protects from temp extremes and desiccation
. physical barrier to microbial invaders
. protects direct trauma to deeper organs
. secretions by glands have antibacterial activity

4. Sensory reception - invested with numerous sensory receptors

ex) exteroceptors

5. Vitamin D production

6. Nonverbal communication - changes in color can reflect embarrassment or shock

3

Name the two major layers of the skin, classify them histologically, name their sublayers, and differentiate them from hypodermis.

*skin is the largest organ and counts for over 10% of body weight!!!

1. Epidermis - stratified squamous epithelium

*from deep to superficial

- stratum basale:
- stratum spinosum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum lucidum
- stratum corneum

4

Name the two major layers of the skin, classify them histologically, name their sublayers, and differentiate them from hypodermis.

*skin is the largest organ and counts for over 10% of body weight!!!

1. Epidermis - stratified squamous epithelium

*from deep to superficial

- stratum basale: single layer of cells which sit on the basement membrane; they continually divide and some of the daughter cells are forced to the surface

- stratum spinosum: several layers of cells, some mitotic activity in this layer

*statrum basale and spinosum are collectively called - stratum germinativum

- stratum granulosum: flattened and degenerated b/c they are so far away from the blood supply in the dermis
* the process of keratinization begins in this layer

- stratum lucidum: only present on palms of hands and soles of feet; cells are so degenerated they are no longer visible

- stratum corneum: outer layer formed by two or three dozen layers of dead cells

*contains significant quantities of keratin in their cytoplasm and is often called CORNIFIED OR KERITANIZED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

5

Name the two major layers of the skin, classify them histologically, name their sublayers, and differentiate them from hypodermis.

*skin is the largest organ and counts for over 10% of body weight!!!

1. Epidermis - stratified squamous epithelium

*from deep to superficial

- stratum basale: single layer of cells which sit on the basement membrane; they continually divide and some of the daughter cells are forced to the surface

- stratum spinosum: several layers of cells, some mitotic activity in this layer

*statrum basale and spinosum are collectively called - stratum germinativum

- stratum granulosum: flattened and degenerated b/c they are so far away from the blood supply in the dermis
* the process of keratinization begins in this layer

- stratum lucidum: only present on palms of hands and soles of feet; cells are so degenerated they are no longer visible

- stratum corneum: outer layer formed by two or three dozen layers of dead cells

*contains significant quantities of keratin in their cytoplasm and is often called CORNIFIED OR KERITANIZED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

6

Name the two major layers of the skin, classify them histologically, name their sublayers, and differentiate them from hypodermis.

*skin is the largest organ and counts for over 10% of body weight!!!

continued...

2. Dermis - deep to epidermis, c.t. proper

- Papillary Layer: thinner superficial portion which lies directly under the epidermis

. it has numerous projections and ridges which support the surface patterns that cause fingerprints

- Reticular Layer: deep to papillary layer and is continuous with the underlying subcutaneous tissue

*Hypodermis/Superficial Fascia/Subcutaneous tissue is not a layer of skin! It is what connects the dermis to deeper structures of the body

7

Name the two major layers of the skin, classify them histologically, name their sublayers, and differentiate them from hypodermis.

*skin is the largest organ and counts for over 10% of body weight!!!

continued...

2. Dermis - deep to epidermis, c.t. proper

- Papillary Layer: thinner superficial portion which lies directly under the epidermis

. it has numerous projections and ridges which support the surface patterns that cause fingerprints

- Reticular Layer: deep to papillary layer and is continuous with the underlying subcutaneous tissue

*Hypodermis/Superficial Fascia/Subcutaneous tissue is not a layer of skin! It is what connects the dermis to deeper structures of the body

- the dermis is where scarring occurs, stretch marks (lineae albicans)

8

Name the two major layers of the skin, classify them histologically, name their sublayers, and differentiate them from hypodermis.

*skin is the largest organ and counts for over 10% of body weight!!!

continued...

2. Dermis - deep to epidermis, c.t. proper

- Papillary Layer: thinner superficial portion which lies directly under the epidermis

. it has numerous projections and ridges which support the surface patterns that cause fingerprints

- Reticular Layer: deep to papillary layer and is continuous with the underlying subcutaneous tissue

*Hypodermis/Superficial Fascia/Subcutaneous tissue is not a layer of skin! It is what connects the dermis to deeper structures of the body

- the dermis is where scarring occurs, stretch marks (lineae albicans)

- the dermis is highly vascularized and contains significant numbers of elastic and collagenous fibers

9

List the pigments that contribute to skin color.

1. Melanin - responsible for the darkening of the skin (dark pigment produced by melanocytes)

- these cells are located in stratum basale and spinosum

*all individuals have the same # of melanocytes, the amount of pigment they produce and the degree that it is dispersed within their cytoplasm determines white from black from brown

EXPOSURE FROM ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT increases melanin production ("suntan")

*those who lack melanocytes are Albino

2. Hemoglobin (red pigment in RBC's)

3. Carotene (pigment found in dark leafy greens)

10

Differentiate the glands associated with the skin in regard to location, type of secretion, mode of secretion, and function.

1. Sweat (sudoriferous) glands - produce a watery secretion that has a thermoregulatory function

- Eccrine (merocrine) sudoriferous glands: located over whole skin surface except lips, glans penis, and areas covered by nails

. watery secretion
. opens at sudoriferous pores

- Apocrine sudoriferous glands: located into armpits (axillae) and groin (perineal regions)

. viscous and odoriferous secretions because they contain sloughed portions of the secretory cells

2.

11

Differentiate the glands associated with the skin in regard to location, type of secretion, mode of secretion, and function.

1. Sweat (sudoriferous) glands - produce a watery secretion that has a thermoregulatory function

- Eccrine (merocrine) sudoriferous glands: located over whole skin surface except lips, glans penis, and areas covered by nails

. watery secretion
. opens at sudoriferous pores

- Apocrine sudoriferous glands: located into armpits (axillae) and groin (perineal regions)

. viscous and odoriferous secretions because they contain sloughed portions of the secretory cells
. open into hair follicles (located more deeply in hypodermis)

2.

12

Differentiate the glands associated with the skin in regard to location, type of secretion, mode of secretion, and function.

1. Sweat (sudoriferous) glands - produce a watery secretion that has a thermoregulatory function

- Eccrine (merocrine) sudoriferous glands: located over whole skin surface except lips, glans penis, and areas covered by nails

. watery secretion
. opens at sudoriferous pores

- Apocrine sudoriferous glands: located into armpits (axillae) and groin (perineal regions)

. viscous and odoriferous secretions because they contain sloughed portions of the secretory cells
. open into hair follicles (located more deeply in hypodermis)

2. Sebaceous Glands - holocrine oil-producing glands

. secrete sebum and helps to make skin more pliable and waterproof
. when ducts become blocked acne occurs

3. Ceruminous glands - specialized glands found in external acoustic meatus

. secrete cerumen which keeps tympanic membrane pliable

4. Mammary Glands - modified sweat glands that produce milk

13

Differentiate the glands associated with the skin in regard to location, type of secretion, mode of secretion, and function.

1. Sweat (sudoriferous) glands - produce a watery secretion that has a thermoregulatory function

- Eccrine (merocrine) sudoriferous glands: located over whole skin surface except lips, glans penis, and areas covered by nails

. watery secretion
. opens at sudoriferous pores

- Apocrine sudoriferous glands: located into armpits (axillae) and groin (perineal regions)

. viscous and odoriferous secretions because they contain sloughed portions of the secretory cells
. open into hair follicles (located more deeply in hypodermis)

2. Sebaceous Glands - holocrine oil-producing glands

. secrete sebum and helps to make skin more pliable and waterproof
. when ducts become blocked acne occurs

3. Ceruminous glands - specialized glands found in external acoustic meatus

. secrete cerumen which keeps tympanic membrane pliable

4. Mammary Glands - modified sweat glands that produce milk

. found within breasts
. lactiferous ducts open at nipple
. pigmented skin around nipple is termed the areola

14

Differentiate a hair from a hair follicle and explain the phenomenon of "goose bumps."

*hair is not present on nails, palms of hands, soles of feet, lips, nipples, and some parts of genitalia

- a hair follicle consists of an apex, shaft, root, and bulb

- the bulb is the deepest portion and is embedded in an encasement called the hair follicle

15

Differentiate a hair from a hair follicle and explain the phenomenon of "goose bumps."

*hair is not present on nails, palms of hands, soles of feet, lips, nipples, and some parts of genitalia

- a hair follicle consists of an apex, shaft, root, and bulb

- the bulb is the deepest portion and is embedded in an encasement called the hair follicle

* "goose bumps" result from the arrector pili m. which attaches to the hair follicle

. when stimulated by the sympathetic part of the ANS, this fasciculus erects the hair shaft and causes gooseflesh (goosebumps)

16

Differentiate a hair from a hair follicle and explain the phenomenon of "goose bumps."

*hair is not present on nails, palms of hands, soles of feet, lips, nipples, and some parts of genitalia

- a hair follicle consists of an apex (tip), shaft, root, and bulb

- the bulb is the deepest portion and is embedded in an encasement called the hair follicle
- the apex and shaft are exposed above the skin surface

* "goose bumps" result from the arrector pili m. which attaches to the hair follicle

. when stimulated by the sympathetic part of the ANS, this fasciculus erects the hair shaft and causes gooseflesh (goosebumps)

17

State the specific names for hair located in different regions of the body and discuss the substances that contribute to hair color.

lanugo - embryonic hair
capilli - scalp hair
cilia - eyelashes
supercilia - eyebrows
barba - facial hair
tragi - ear hair
vibrissae - nose hair
pubes - pubic hair
hirci - axillary hair (armpit hair)

18

State the specific names for hair located in different regions of the body and discuss the substances that contribute to hair color.

lanugo - embryonic hair
capilli - scalp hair
cilia - eyelashes
supercilia - eyebrows
barba - facial hair
tragi - ear hair
vibrissae - nose hair
pubes - pubic hair
hirci - axillary hair (armpit hair)

* hair color is attributed to increasing amounts of melanin (blonde, brown, black hair) and trichosiderin (red hair)

19

State the specific names for hair located in different regions of the body and discuss the substances that contribute to hair color.

lanugo - embryonic hair
capilli - scalp hair
cilia - eyelashes
supercilia - eyebrows
barba - facial hair
tragi - ear hair
vibrissae - nose hair
pubes - pubic hair
hirci - axillary hair (armpit hair)

* hair color is attributed to increasing amounts of melanin (blonde, brown, black hair) and trichosiderin (red hair)

* grey and white hair are a result of lack of pigment and increasing amounts of air in medullary portions of hair shafts

20

Explain the relationship between the texture of hair and cross - sectional shapes of hair shafts.

*hair texture is due to the diameter and the shape of the hair shafts!!!

- round shafts = straight hair
- oval shafts = wavy hair
- flattened shafts = curly hair

21

Sketch a nail and label its parts including its four borders and the lunula.

1. body - epithelial portion

2. Matrix (nail bed) - dermis to which the body is attached

3. 2 lateral borders

- wall of the nail

4. Blind (proximal) border

- eponychium
- perionyx (cuticule)

5. Free (distal border)

- hyponychium: thickened layer of dermis underneath distal border

6. Lunula : half-mooned shaped, pale area along proximal border of some nails

22

Sketch a nail and label its parts including its four borders and the lunula.

1. body - epithelial portion

2. Matrix (nail bed) - dermis to which the body is attached

3. 2 lateral borders

- wall of the nail

4. Blind (proximal) border

- eponychium - think layer of skin adherent to nail over its proximal border
- perionyx (cuticule)

5. Free (distal border)

- hyponychium: thickened layer of dermis underneath distal border

6. Lunula : half-mooned shaped, pale area along proximal border of some nails

23

Sketch a nail and label its parts including its four borders and the lunula.

1. body - epithelial portion

2. Matrix (nail bed) - dermis to which the body is attached

3. 2 lateral borders

- wall of the nail

4. Blind (proximal) border

- eponychium - think layer of skin adherent to nail over its proximal border
- perionyx (cuticule) - remnant that separates away

5. Free (distal border)

- hyponychium: thickened layer of dermis underneath distal border

6. Lunula : half-mooned shaped, pale area along proximal border of some nails

24

Sketch a nail and label its parts including its four borders and the lunula.

1. body - epithelial portion

2. matrix (nail bed) - dermis to which the body is attached

3. 2 lateral borders

- wall of the nail

4. Blind (proximal) border

- eponychium - think layer of skin adherent to nail over its proximal border
- perionyx (cuticule) - remnant that separates away

5. Free (distal border)

- hyponychium: thickened layer of dermis underneath distal border

6. Lunula : half-mooned shaped, pale area along proximal border of some nails

25

Define/differentiate the common types of skin injuries including lacerations, abrasions, punctures and avulsions.

1. Lacerations - cut/tear

2. Abrasions - scrape

3. Avulsions - tearing away chunks of skin

4. Puncture - hole in skin where bacteria can grow; often treated very seriously because body tissues lack sufficient oxygen levels to inhibit the growth of tetanus

26

Define/differentiate the common types of skin injuries including lacerations, abrasions, punctures and avulsions.

1. Lacerations - cut/tear

2. Abrasions - scrape

3. Avulsions - tearing away chunks of skin

4. Puncture - hole in skin where bacteria can grow; often treated very seriously because body tissues lack sufficient oxygen levels to inhibit the growth of tetanus

27

Explain what causes scarring.

Scarring is the result of the proliferation of c.t. proper to heal wounds.

- if wound edges are pulled together and infection is controlled, scaring is minimal