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Flashcards in Cardio System Deck (38):
1

Name and define the components of the cardiovascular system.

1. Heart: muscular pump that propels blood throughout the body

2. Arteries: carry blood away from the heart

3. Veins: carry blood to the heart

4. Capillaries: exchange nutrients and wastes between blood and other body tissues

5. Blood: only fluid tissue in the body and serves as a transport medium

2

List the functions of the cardiovascular system.

1. Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide Exchange:

oxygen picked up by red blood cells in lungs and transported to tissues of the body

CO2 absorbed by blood and carried back to lungs where it's exhaled

2. Nutrient/Waste Exchange:

primarily involving the dig and urinary systems

nutrients are absorbed into blood stream by dig system and then carried throughout body

some wastes are picked up by bloodstream and carried to kidneys

3. Hormone Transport

4. Acid/Base Balance:

hemoglobin and bicarbonate (HCO3-) help absorb excess hydrogen ions and prevent unmarked changes in pH

5. Thermoregulation:

when body temp rises, blood flow is channeled to superficial vessels to help radiate excess heat

when body temp lowers, surfaces blood flow is reduced to lessen heat loss

6. Body Defense:

gamma globulins (impart immunity)
white blood cells (phagocytic cells)
clotting mechanism

3

Name the major external landmarks of the heart.

Base - superior end

Apex- inferior end

Sternocostal surface - anterior aspect

Diaphragmatic surface - inferior aspect

Pulmonary surface - left side

Right border - right side

Anterior/Posterior Interventricular Grooves - mark interventricular septum that internally separates the left/right ventricles

Coronary groove: fat filled landmark between atria above and ventricles beneath

4

List and differentiate the layers of the heart.

1. Endocardium:

- has c.t. proper and simple squamous epithelium (endothelium)

*endothelium lines the heart and extends into the vessels

2. Myocardium: c.t. proper and cardiac muscle

*contractile portion of the heart and contains purkinje fibers which conduct impulses (part of electrical system mentioned later)

3. Epicardium:

thin outer layer of the heart (consists of mesothelium)

*forms the visceral layer of serous pericardium (form the inner part of closed sack)


Other Parts:

Pericardial Cavity - hollow space between parietal and visceral layers

Parietal layer of the serous pericardium: outer layer of sac that doesn't touch the heart

(think of fist in balloon)

5

Differentiate the four heart chambers

Right Atrium: collects blood from superior and inferior vena cava as well as coronary sinus (from the rest of the body)

Left Atrium: collects blood from the 4 pulmonary veins (returning from lungs)

Right Ventricle: receives blood from -

1. Right Atrium
2.Right Atrioventricular Valve (tricuspid)
3.Pulmonary Trunk (via pulmonary valve)

Left Ventricle: receives blood from -

1. Left Atrium
2.Left Atrioventricular Valve (mitral)
3.Aorta (via aortic valve)

6

Differentiate the four heart valves in regard to their names (and aliases), location, general structure, and their open/shut position during the cardiac cycle.

Right Atrioventricular Valve

Alias: Tricuspid Valve

Location: Between right atrium/ventricle

General Structure: 3 cusps anchored by chordae tendineae to papillary mm.

Open/Shut position:

Ventricular Systole (contraction) - closed

Ventricular Diastole (relaxation) - open

7

Differentiate the four heart valves in regard to their names (and aliases), location, general structure, and their open/shut position during the cardiac cycle.

Pulmonary Valve

Alias: semilunar valve

Location: between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

General Structure: 3 leaflets that aren't anchored to papillary mm. or chordae tendineae

Open/shut position:

Ventricular systole: open
Ventricular diastole: closed

8

Differentiate the four heart valves in regard to their names (and aliases), location, general structure, and their open/shut position during the cardiac cycle.

Left Atrioventricular Valve

Alias: Mitral Valve

Location: between left atrium/ventricle

General Structure: 2 small 2 large cusps which are anchored by chordae tendineae to papillary mm.

Open/Shut position:

Ventricular Systole: closed

Ventricular Diastole: open

9

Differentiate the four heart valves in regard to their names (and aliases), location, general structure, and their open/shut position during the cardiac cycle.

Aortic Valve

Alias: semilunar valve

Location: between left ventricle and ascending aorta

General Structure: 3 leaflets that aren't anchored to papillary mm. or chordae tendineae

Open/shut position:

Ventricular systole: open

Ventricular diastole: closed

10

Discuss the cardiac cycle.

1. During diastole AV valves are open due to gravity and blood flowing to ventricles

2. Aortic and Pulmonary Valves are closed due to pressure

3. @ beginning of systole atria contract right before ventricles to empty and completely fill ventricles with blood

4. ventricles begin to contract which closes the AV valves (due to intraventricular pressure) and opens aortic and pulmonary valves (due to pressure)

5. blood rushes through aorta and pulmonary trunk

6. when ventricle stops contracting aortic and pulmonary valves close and the AV valves open

7. Cycle repeats

11

State the name and causes of normal heart sounds.

"Lub" is caused by the simultaneous closing of left and right AV valves

"Dub" is caused by the simultaneous closure of aortic and pulmonary valves

Period of time between 1st and 2nd heart sound = systole

Period of time between 2nd and next 1st heart sound = diastole

12

Explain the causes of cardiac murmurs.

Cardiac murmurs are caused by problems with the AV valves and the aortic and pulmonary valves opening/closing.

In other words: the valves don't open/close properly

Insufficient: means the heart valves don't close securely to prevent leakage

Valvular stenosis (narrowing): means heart valves fail to open

- can be caused by infectious diseases that cause scarring and fusion of adjacent cusps

* Remember

If it's up near the sternum (2nd/3rd intercostal space) depending on whether it's right or left side, it's murmurs involving Aortic and Pulmonary Valve

If it's near apex of heart depending on whether it's right or left side, it's murmurs involving Tricuspid and Mitral Valve

13

Discuss the electrical conduction system of the heart.

purkinje fibers - control contraction of heart muscle

1. Sinoatrial node (SA node) - initiates impulses that lead to systole

2. travel through atria (in purkinje fibers) to AV node

3. it's delayed for a fractional part of a second before being passed onto ventricles
(allows atria to empty before ventricles contract)

4. impulses continue downward to AV bundle (atrioventricular fasicle)

5. they then go to left/right crura

6. impulses distributed to myocardium of ventricular walls

14

Define Arteries and differentiate the three class sizes.

Arteries: vessels which carry blood from heart to the capillaries

1. Elastic Arteries
- pulmonary trunk, aorta, some of their branches
- LARGEST
- have significant amount of elastic c.t. in their tunica media

2. Muscular Arteries
- can be seen with naked eye
- hv. mainly smooth muscle in their tunica media
- this muscle can be involuntarily contracted by ANS to elevate blood pressure or relaxed to lower it

3. Arterioles
- smallest
- supply capillaries
- in some cases empty directly into veins (arteriovenous anastomoses)

*those connections are mainly found in surface blood vessels for thermoregulation


Remember: arteries are much too thick to allow nutrient/waste exchange

tissues in walls of veins/arteries are nourished by vessels that enter them from external surfaces (vasa vasorum)

15

Explain why capillaries are the only blood vessels which can exchange nutrients and waste products with surrounding tissues, and list the avascular components of the body.

- capillaries are the smallest vessels and the only ones with walls thin enough to allow diffusion of nutrients and waste products

avascular components:
- mature cartilage
- hair/nails (epithelial derivatives)
- membranous epithelium
- cornea/lens of the eye

16

Discuss the normal function of pre-capillary sphincters and explain how (why) endotoxic shock occurs.

-pre-capillary sphincters are rings of smooth muscle that surround capillaries as they leave arterioles
- they alternately and rhythmically open and close allowing blood to flow into only a fractional part of the capillaries during any one time

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeX0uDpPBj4

Endotoxic shock occurs when a circulating toxin paralyzes pre-capillary sphincters

This results in too many capillaries being open and a precipitous drop in blood pressure

17

Compare an artery to the vein that follows it (satellite vein) in regard to thickness of the wall, overall diameter, volume of blood transported/unit time, and the presence of valves.

Vein:

1. have same three layers as arteries (tunica externa, media, interna)

- their walls are thinner overall and the tissue composition is different (fewer smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers)

2. pressure in veins is very low so blood travels more slowly

3. carries almost as much blood volume per unit time except that which is lost into the extracellular fluid by "leaking" through capillary walls

4. there are valves present!

5. larger diameter than arteries

18

Compare a standard circulatory pattern to a portal pattern and name the two portal systems found in the human body.

Standard Circulatory pattern:

arteries - arterioles - capillaries- venules- veins

(blood typically flows through only one set of capillaries)

Portal Pattern:

blood courses through two different sets of capillaries in series before returning to the heart

1. Hypothalamohypophyseal Portal System

2. Hepatic Portal System

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAEKPbJfqQ8

19

Indicate what is meant by a "dual blood supply" and name the organs which have one.

"Dual Blood Supply" means that body structures are receiving high and low oxygen blood.

1. Pituitary Gland
2. Liver
3. Lungs
4. Heart

20

Divide the aorta into its three major parts and list the branches that each one supplies.

1. Ascending part of the Aorta:

- Right Coronary a. (right V/A)
- Left Coronary a. (left V/A)

2. Aortic Arch

- Brachiocephalic trunk
. right subclavian artery - right superior limb
. right common carotid artery - right side of head

- Left common carotid a. (left side of head)

- Left subclavian a. (left superior limb)

3. Descending Aorta:

- Thoracic Part of descending aorta
- Abdominal Part of descending aorta

21

Name the four major systemic veins, what coalesces to form each one, what parts of the body each drains, and where (into what) each one empties.

Superior Vena Cava

Empties: right atrium of the heart

Drains: from the head, neck, thorax, and superior limbs

Formed by: left/ right brachiocephalic veins

Made of:

- internal jugular vein (blood from head)
- subclavian vein (carrying blood from superior limb)
- external jugular vein (superficial venous drainage from the head)

22

Name the four major systemic veins, what coalesces to form each one, what parts of the body each drains, and where (into what) each one empties.

Inferior Vena Cava

Empties: right atrium

Drains: from the abdomen, pelvis, and inferior limbs

Formed by: left/right common iliac veins in abdominal cavity

Made of:

-internal iliac vein (blood from pelvic region)
-external iliac vein (blood from inferior limb)

23

Name the four major systemic veins, what coalesces to form each one, what parts of the body each drains, and where (into what) each one empties.

Hepatic Portal Vein



Azygos Vein


Hepatic Portal Vein -

Empties: liver

Drains: from capillary beds in stomach, spleen, pancreas, and small/large intestines

Formed by: superior mesenteric vein (draining from small intestine) and splenic vein (draining spleen, stomach, pancreas, and large intestine)


Azygos Vein -

Empties: superior vena cava

Drains: thoracic wall

Isn't formed by any other veins but receives blood from other veins



24

Differentiate blood, plasma, and serum.

Blood - fluid connective tissue that circulates through the heart and vessels

- average adult has 5 L

Plasma - liquid portion (55%)

Serum - clear liquid that separates from blood as it clots (blood plasma from which fibrinogen has been removed by the process of clotting)

25

Name the formed elements of blood and state the functions of each one.

Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes: (RBC's)

* 5 mill RBC in cubic millimeter
* 5 bill RBC in ml or cubic centimeter
* 5 trill in a liter (25 trill per person)

-tiny red staining cells
-biconcave disc
-small size allows them to move through capillaries
-pick up and release oxygen (Hemoglobin)

*there are 280 mill molecules of hemoglobin in each RBC

- Hemoglobin also carries some CO2 back to lungs

26

Name the formed elements of blood and state the functions of each one.

Leucocytes

Leucocytes: (WBC's)

- 5 types of leucocytes

. 3 types are granulocytes (Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils)

- Neutrophils: (60%) don't take up stain; phagocytic cells (most common)

- Eosinophils: stain red; dissolve blood clots, allergic reactions, detox

- Basophils: stain blue; release heparin, histamine, serotonin (least common), antigoagulent

Non-Granulocytes (Agranulocytes) :

- Monocytes: phagocytic (Largest WBC)

- Lymphocytes (T and B):

. T lymphocytes = immunity (cell- mediated immunity)

. B lymphocytes = manufacture antibodies (humoral immunity)

27

Name the formed elements of blood and state the functions of each one.

Thrombocytes

Thrombocytes: "platelets"

- blood clotting
- converts fibrinogen to fibrin

28

List the components of plasma.

- 92% water
- rest are proteins
- electrolytes
- carbohydrates
- lipids

- 7% Proteins:
* Albumins (60%) - responsible for plasma osmotic pressure (create solids that drive osmosis)

* Globulins (35%) - (immuno proteins)

* Fibrinogen (5%) - clotting factor


- 1% small organic molecules

29

List the two peculiarities of fetal biology that require fetal-specific cardiovascular structures.

1. Shrunken legs
2. Nutrient/Waste exchange at the placenta

30

Name the fetal-specific cardiovascular structures and state what each becomes after birth.

1. Umbilical Arteries --> medial umbilical ligaments

2. Umbilical Veins --> round ligament of the liver

*vein in liver (ductus venosus) -->ligamentum venosum

3. Foramen Ovale --> fossa ovalis

4. Ductus Arteriosus --> ligamentum arteriosum

- if it fails to regress = patent ductus arteriosus

31

Follow the blood through the fetal cardiovascular system and identify the three major places where the oxygen level of the blood is lowered due to mixing with blood of lower oxygen content.

1. Oxygen/Nutrients diffuse through maternal capillaries of placenta and are picked up by red blood cells flowing through placental capillaries

2. Highly oxygenated blood returns to fetus through the umbilical vein and is shunted through liver in ductus venosus

3. As it leaves liver through hepatic veins it's diluted by blood draining from liver tissue

*first location of blood mixing (light purple color)

4. Enters inferior vena cava where it's further diluted by blood of low oxygen from inferior limbs and lower abdomen

*second location of blood mixing (medium purple)

5. In right atrium oxygen content of blood is reduced again by venous blood returning to the heart from head, thorax, and superior limbs via superior vena cava

*third location of blood mixing (dark purple)

32

Continuation of Fetal Blood Circulation

6. Some blood in right atrium flows directly into left atrium via FORAMEN OVALE (bypasses lungs)

7. Rest flows into right ventricle and then to the pulmonary trunk en route to the lungs

8. Much of the blood bypasses the lungs via the DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS into the aortic arch

9. Blood that goes to lungs returns to left atrium to the left ventricle to aorta etc.

10. Blood is then carried from arteries to placenta (oxygen content in umbilical arteries is not as low as oxygen in the fetal systemic veins)

33

State what happens at/shortly after birth to each fetal-specific cardiovascular structure.

1. First breath dilates lungs which reduces flow resistance in pulmonary circulation

2. Increase in pulmonary flow increases volume of blood in left atrium through pulmonary veins

3. This closes the foramen ovale by forcing a flap of tissue against it

4. As the infant breaths increased oxygen content throughout cardiovascular system causes smooth m. in walls of umbilical vessels, ductus venosus, and ductus arteriosus to contract

5. This closes them and with time they scar to effect permanent closure

34

Define sphygmomanometer and explain how it and a stethoscope are used to monitor blood pressure.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywvdybt3pbE

Sphygmomanometer: device that measures systemic blood pressure

A inflatable cuff is placed over the brachium. The cuff is inflated until it obliterates blood flow through the brachial artery. The cuff pressure is slowly released until blood begins to flow into the artery again. With a stethoscope you can listen to the sounds made as blood flows back into the arteries.

The pressure of blood going back into arteries = systolic arterial pressure.

(avg in normal humans is 120 mm Hg)

Pressure is released until no sounds are heard in stethoscope = diastolic arterial pressure

(ave in normal humans is 80 mm Hg)

35

Define and differentiate the types of circulatory shock.

Circulatory shock - drop in blood pressure

1. Hypovolemic shock: significant blood loss

2. Neurogenic shock: extreme emotional disturbance

3. Endotoxic shock: paralysis of precapillary sphincters of arterioles by bacterial toxins

4. Cardiogenic shock: reduction in hearts ability to pump

36

Differentiate electrocardiograph from electrocardiogram and define the various degrees of heart block.

Electrocardiograph: what measures the electrical activity of the heart

Electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) : the product of the electrocardiograph; graphed print out of the electrical activity

1. First Degree Block: prolongations of
A-V conduction time

2. Second Degree Block: some, but not all atrial impulses reach the ventricles

3. Complete (third degree) A-V block: no atrial impulses reach the ventricles

*complete blocks and some second degree blocks may need a cardiac pacemaker

37

Define: Heart Attack, Arteriosclerosis, Tachycardia, Bradycardia, and Hypertension.

Heart Attack (myocardial infarction) - insufficiency of blood supply to the myocardium resulting in damage or death of cardiac muscle tissue

Arteriosclerosis - reduced diameter of cardiac arteries; decreased resiliency (hardening) of the vessels due to deposition of abnormal material in tunica intima/media (bypass surgery may need to be performed)

Tachycardia - elevated heart rate (above 70 contractions/min)

Bradycardia - lowered heart rate (below 70 contractions/min)

Hypertension - high blood pressure; puts excessive load on the heart and can cause rupture of vessels

38

Differentiate the major ABO blood types and explain what is meant by the Rh factor.

1. Type A - has antibodies against type B (cannot receive B or AB blood)

2. Type B - has antibodies against type A (cannot receive A or AB blood)

3. Type O - universal donor; antibodies against type A, B, AB

4. Type AB - universal recipient; can receive A, B, AB

Rh factor - another group of antigens on red blood cells

- Rh positive: people with the antigens
- Rh negative: lacking the factor