Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Lecture > Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (26):
1

List the organs of the male reproductive system.

1. Testes (2)
2. Epididymides (2)
3. Deferential Ducts (2)

*urethra - belongs to urinary, have functional purpose in male repro

4. Penis

Accessory Glands:

1. Seminal Vesicles (2)
2. Prostate Gland
3. Bulbourethral Glands (2)

2

State the functions of the male reproductive system.

1. Production of Male Sex Hormones - testosterone
- produced in testis (endocrine function)
- controls development and function of male repro. organs
- male secondary sex characteristics

2. Production of Male Sex Cells - sperm

- produced in testis (exocrine function)
- undergo mitotic and meiotic division to reduce chromosome number to 23 (restored to 46 during fertilization)

3. Production of Semen - mixture of sperm and fluid

- majority of fluid = 60% from seminal vesicles
- 20% prostate secretions
- mucus from bulbourethral glands and glands of urethra
- each ml has approx. 120 million sperm

4. Copulation - sexual union of male and female

3

Draw a coronal section of a testis and label the following: testicular septula, testicular lobules, seminiferous tubules, and interstitial cells.

Testis produce testosterone and sperm!

Testicular septula: extend from the testicular mediastinum to divide the testicular parenchyma into testicular lobules

Testicular lobules: arise from testicular septula and contain seminiferous tubules within it

Seminiferous Tubules: located within testicular lobules
- contain spermatogenic cells and sustentacular cells

Interstitial Cells: located between seminiferous tubules

4

List the functions of the following testicular cells: interstitial cells, sustentacular cells, and spermatogenic cells.

Interstitial cells: produce testosterone

Sustentacular Cells: provide developing sperm with support, protection, and nutrition

Spermatogenic cells: produce sperm

5

Explain the phenomenal difference in the length of the epididymis vs. the length of its duct.

Epididymis is where sperm complete their maturation!

Epididymis = 4-5 cm long

Duct of Epididymis = 5-6 meters

*sperm complete their maturation here

6

Diagram and label the process of spermatogenesis.

look at pg. 704!!!

1. Spermatogonium (2N) - 46 chromosomes
*undergo mitosis
*some migrate away to form Primary Spermatocytes

2. Primary Spermatocytes (2N) - 46 chromosomes
*undergo meiosis I
* form 2 Secondary Spermatocytes

3. Secondary Spermatocytes (N) - 23 chromosomes
*undergoes meiosis II
* forms 4 spermatids

4. Spermatids (N) - 23 chromosomes
* go through series of changes (spermiogenesis) to form spermatoza sperm

5. Spermatoza (Sperm)

*spermatogensis encompasses all the steps including spermiogenesis

*spermiogensis includes step 4 and 5

7

Schematically represent and label a transverse section of a seminiferous tubule.

1. Basement membrane = Spermatogonium (primitive stem cells)

2. Primary Spermatocytes

3. Secondary Spermatocytes

4. Spermatids

5. Sperm

(moving from the outward in)

- like rings on a tree

8

Schematically represent and label a transverse section of a seminiferous tubule.

1. Basement membrane = Speratogonium (primitive stem cells)

2. Primary Spermatocytes

3. Secondary Spermatocytes

4. Spermatids

5. Sperm

(moving from the outward in)

- like rings on a tree

9

Diagram and label a spermatozoon and differentiate sperm from semen.

1. Head of sperm
- contains nucleus
- acrosome = contains powerful hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes that can destroy male reproductive tract if prematurely released
- cholesterol coats acrosome and prevents this from happening

2. Flagellum

- conjugal part: "neck"
- intermediate part: contains mitochondria (ATP) which provide energy to move rest of flagellum
- principal part
- terminal part

*sperm constitutes less than 1% of semen

10

List and define the subparts of the ductus deferens.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5TpvFubm8c

1. continuation of the duct of the epididymis
2. courses from the tail of the epididymis
3. passes through anteroinferior abdominal wall along with other structures = spermatic cord
4. loops around ureter on posterior aspect of urinary bladder
5. passes through prostate
6. enters urethra

*near its termination = ampulla of ductus deferens
* ejaculatory duct = urethral end; excretory duct of seminal vesicle + ductus deferens
- connects to prostatic part of urethra

11

List and define the subparts of the urethra.


Look at video in flash card 9

*urethra belongs to urinary system but also functions in repro system

1. Prostatic Part of the Urethra

- portion within the prostate gland
- receives openings of L/R ejaculatory ducts
- contains ridge called urethral crest
- prostatic ducts open into urethra on either side of this crest and mix with sperm and vesicular fluid to form semen

2. Membranous Part of the Urethra

- portion within urogenital diaphragm
- shortest part of urethra
- less distensible because of urethral sphincter m.

3. Spongy Part of the Urethra

- portion within the penis
- surrounded by erectile tissue called corpus spongiosum penis
- terminates at external urethral ostium at tip of glans penis
- ducts of L/R bulbourethral glands enter spongy part inferior to urogenital diaphragm
- urethral glands located in spongy part secret mucus like substance similar to bulbourethral glands

12

Explain what is surgically removed during circumcision of a male.

The prepuce (foreskin) of the penis is the skin over the glans penis that is removed during circumcision

- it attaches by the frenulum of the prepuce

13

Diagram and label a transverse section through the body of a penis.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=razkCzuRgak

1. Root of the Penis
- divided into left and right crura
- attach to pubis

2. Body of the Penis
- most of the length

3. Glans Penis
- distal extremity
- flares to form corona of glans penis

Corpora Cavernosa Penis- form main portion of body of penis
- diverge to form L/R crura which attaches to root

Corpus Spongiosum Penis - surrounds spongy part of urethra
- its proximal end forms the bulb of the penis

3 erectile bodies consist of cavernous spaces which can fill with blood to effect erection

- they are surrounded by tunica albuginea of the penis

14

Explain the phenomenon of penile erection.

1. parasympathetic impulses initiate increased blood flow to penile arteries and cause partial occulsion of penile veins (like plugging the bath tub, it's gonna fill up with water but in this case blood)

2. this causes engorgement of the erectile bodies of the penis (corpora cavernosa penis and corpus spongiosum penis)

3. these erectile bodies filling up with blood results in the enlargement and stiffening of the penis called erection

SO GLAD I'M A GIRL!!!!

Detumescence: decrease in penile size associated with loss of erection
- reduced arterial blood flow to penis and increase venous drainage from erectile bodies

15

Differentiate emission, orgasm, and ejaculation.

Emission: caused by stimulation of the penis

- movement of sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory ducts and release of secretions from the accessory sex glands

Orgasm: continued stimulation of the penis results in pleasurable sensory impulses

Ejaculation: what follows an orgasm
- causes rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus and urethral mm. which causes peristaltic waves in corpus spongiosum penis
- force of these contractions causes semen to spurt from urethral orifice

16

Differentiate emission, orgasm, and ejaculation.

Emission: caused by stimulation of the penis

- movement of sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory ducts and release of secretions from the accessory sex glands

Orgasm: continued stimulation of the penis results in pleasurable sensory impulses

Ejaculation: what follows and orgasm
- causes rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus and urethral mm. which causes peristaltic waves in corpus spongiosum penis
- force of these contractions causes semen to spurt from urethral orifice

17

Name the male accessory sex glands, state their location, and state what each secretes.

1. Seminal Vesicles

Located: lateral aspects of each ampulla of ductus deferens on posterior aspect of urinary bladder

Secretes: mucoid substance containing - fructose (nutrient), prostaglandins (makes cervical mucus of female receptive to sperm), and fibrinogen (immobilizes sperm first 15-20 min after ejaculation)

2. Prostate Gland

Located: surrounds initial part of male urethra

Secretes: milky thin alkaline fluid - contains calcium ions, acid phosphatase, citric acid, clotting enzyme, and profibrinolysin (breaks clot apart)

*alkalinity of prostate secretions neutralizes acidic fluids in vagina

3. Bulbourethral Glands

Located: initial portion of spongy part of urethra

Secretes: lubricating fluid which assist the penis going into the vagina

- cleans urethra and neutralizes any acidity from urine

18

Define the inguinal canal and its openings.

Inguinal Canal: passageway through anteroinferior abdominal wall that transmits each ductus deferens and several other structures

External opening = superficial inguinal ring

- hole in aponeurosis of external abdominal oblique m.

Internal opening = deep inguinal ring

- bounded by internal abdominal oblique m.
- tendon of rectus abdominis m.
- inguinal ligment

19

Define spermatic cord and schematically represent and label a transverse section through it.

Spermatic cord: portion of ductus deferens that courses through the inguinal canal and the neurovascular structures that accompany it

Neurovascular structures consist of:

- deferential vessels
- testicular artery
- testicular veins
- nerves
- lymphatic vessels

20

Other stuff that might be good to know about the spermatic cord...

Pampiniform Plexus: testicular veins that go around the testicular arteries

- heat exchanger: cools arterial flow before it reaches the testis

Peritoneum covers the spermatic cord and is called the VAGINAL TUNIC

1. Visceral Vaginal Tunic: adherent to ductus deferens as well as testis and epididymis

2. Parietal Vaginal Tunic: lines inside of scrotum

3. Vaginal Cavity: space between visceral and parietal vaginal tunic

** Cremaster Muscle: slip of skeletal m. from internal abdominal oblique attaches to parietal vaginal tunic

- contraction of this m. elevates the testis

21

Sketch and label a transverse section through the scrotum

Scrotum has 3 walls:

1. Skin
2. Tunica Dartos (smooth m layer)
3. Parietal Vaginal Tunic (lines scrotal cavity)

* Scrotal Septum divides the scrotum into left and right chambers

22

Differentiate the two regional parts of the vaginal tunic.

1. Visceral Layer of the Vaginal Tunic

- lines the ductus deferens, epididymis, and testis

2. Parietal Layer of the Vaginal Tunic

- lines the wall of the scrotum and inguinal canal

3. Vaginal Cavity

- space between visceral and parietal layers of the vaginal tunic

23

Explain how the tunica dartos functions in thermoregulation of the testis.

- Tunica Dartos is a smooth m layer that contains the dartos m.

- This m. contracts and relaxes in changing environmental temperatures

Relaxation of the muscle: allows testes to draw further away from perineum and cools them

Contraction of the muscle: draws testes closer to perineum to warm them

*core body temp is 37 degrees C but temp within the scrotum is maintained at less than 34 degrees C
* lower temp is necessary for spermatogenesis

24

Differentiate the two regional parts of the vaginal tunic.

1. Visceral Layer of the Vaginal Tunic

- lines the ductus deferens, epididymis, and testis

2. Parietal Layer of the Vaginal Tunic

- lines the wall of the scrotum and inguinal canal

3. Vaginal Cavity

- space between visceral and parietal layers of the vaginal tunic

25

Differentiate phimosis vs. paraphimosis.

Phimosis: caused by a stenotic preputial opening which will not allow the prepuce to be retracted over glans penis

(constriction in opening of foreskin of penis so it can't be drawn back over tip of the penis)

- prevents proper hygienic cleansing and can increase risk of penile cancer

Paraphimosis: condition which prepuce is retracted and can't be returned to its normal anatomical position over the glans penis

(foreskin is retracted behind the crown of the penis)

- can restrict blood flow and damage the glans penis if left untreated

26

Explain why bilateral cryptorchids are usually sterile but not impotent.

Cryptorchids: failure of one or both testes to descend into scrotum

- don't produce viable sperm but their testosterone output is undiminished

- they can't conceive (sterile) because they don't produce viable sperm but they can maintain an erection because they still produce testosterone

Impotence: inability to maintain an erection