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Anatomy Lecture > Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (30):
1

Name the major parts of the respiratory system in the order that inspired air encounters them.

1. Nose
2. Nasal Cavity
3. Paranasal sinuses
(pharynx - organ of DIG sys)
4. Larynx
5. Trachea
6. Bronchial Tree
7. Lungs

2

Differentiate the "upper" and "lower" parts of the respiratory system.

Upper: nose down to the larynx

Lower: trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs

3

List the functions of the respiratory system and note which two are also functions of the cardiovascular system.

* 1. O2/CO2 exchange
* 2. Acid/Base Balance (7.35-7.45)

* these are shared with the cardiovascular system

3. Protective Reflexes
- coughing
- sneezing

4. Vocalization (phonation)

5. Abdominal Compression

6. Olfaction

4

Describe the various modified (protective and non- protected) respiratory movements.

Protective:

1. Cough
2. Sneeze

Non- protected:

1. Laugh
2. Cry
3. Sigh
4. Yawn
5. Hiccup (hiccough)
6. Valsalva Manouver

5

Differentiate nose and nasal cavity.

Nose - central position on the anterior aspect of the face

Nasal Cavity - passageway through the nose and superior to the palate
- divided into left and right halves by nasal septum
- nasal portion just inside each nostril = nasal vestibule


*** nasal septum has 3 parts

1. membranous - only soft tissue (middle part)
2. cartilaginous - upper part, more flexible
3. osseous - (perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone and vomer)

6

Explain how the nasal septum and nasal conchae divide the nasal cavity into six meatus.

- Nasal septum divides nose into left and right halves
- Each half is divided by superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatus = 6!

*each half of nasal cavity communicates with nasal part of pharynx through passageway termed choana (2 total b/c left and right halves)

7

Name the four pairs of paranasal sinuses.

1. Maxillary
2. Sphenoid
3. Ethmoid
4. Frontal

- lighten skull
- add resonant intotation to voice

8

State the four word histological classification of respiratory epithelium.

Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

* it is not the same as respiratory epitheliocytes!!! (this forms lining of alveoli of lungs)

* it is also called respiratory epithelium which lines the air conducting passageways

- goblet cells are interspersed among columnar epithelial cells to produce mucus which helps to moisturize air and prevent drying of passageway linings (can also help to trap matter) - just a fun fact for ya!

9

List the seven openings into/out of the pharynx and indicate which ones are normally traversed by ingesta or inspired air.



(check on this one)

1. Choanae (L/R)
2. L/R Pharyngeal Openings of Auditory Tube
3. Fauces (gullet)
4. Esophagus
5. Opening into larynx (aditus laryngis)

*pharynx is shared by both DIG and RESP systems

Ingesta:
- fauces (gullet)
- esophagus
- oral/laryngeal parts of pharynx

Inspired Air:
- Choanae (L/R)
- L/R Pharyngeal Openings of Auditory Tube
- fauces (gullet)
- nasal, oral, and laryngeal parts of pharynx

10

Name the cartilages of the larynx and indicate which are paired.

Paired Cartilages:
1. arytenoid
2. corniculate
3. cuneiform

Un-paired Cartilages:
1. thyroid (has laryngeal prominence or adams apple)
2. epiglottic
3. cricoid

11

Explain how and why the vocal folds are tensed, abducted, and or adducted.

Tensed:

- to produce a higher pitched sound
- cricothyroideus m. is contracted to change angle of cricothyroid joints

Abducted:

- vocal folds are abducted when we are breathing normally
- laryngeal mm. attach to the arytenoid cartilages and rotate them

Adducted:

- during abdominal press

*when we are talking the vocal folds are partially abducted

12

Explain the role of cartilage in the wall of the trachea and bronchi.

Cartilage keeps the trachea and bronchi open and reinforces the structure of the walls.

*cartilage is only in the trachea and bronchi

* the cartilage is c-shaped so the trachea can decompress when bolus enters the esophagus

13

Discuss the anatomy of the bronchial tree including principal, lobar, and segmental bronchi.

Trachea -->

-right and left principal bronchus --->

- right (3) and left (2) lobar bronchi --->

(right has 3 b/c right lung has 3 lobes)

- right and left segmental bronchi (20 on each side) - got this off of shively's video

- text book says that R lobe has 10 segmental bronchi and L lobe has 9 segmental bronchi

from the bronchi it then goes to the bronchioles and then the alveolar ducts


14

Structurally differentiate bronchi and bronchioles.

Bronchi has cartilage and bronchioles DO NOT have cartilage.

*once cartilage disappears = bronchioles!!!

15

Explain why it is advantageous to have ciliated cells extend "deeper" into the bronchial passageways than goblet cells.

The respiratory epithelium lining of the bronchioles loses its mucus producing goblet cells and then its ciliated cells as it nears the pulmonary alveoli.

This loss in goblet cells insures that mucus won't be produced where there is no cilia present to move it.

16

Name and define the four surfaces of a lung and state where the hilum is located.

1. Costal Surface - facing ribs
2. Diaphragmatic Surface - facing diaphragm
3. Mediastinal Surface - facing mediastinum
4. Interlobar surface - facing other lobes

The Hilum is located on mediastinal surface

*vessels, nerves, and branches of bronchial tree enter each lung @ hilum

17

Discuss the anatomy of a pulmonary alveolus including the three layers that O2 and CO2 must diffuse through (i.e. the components of the "air-blood barrier")

Pulmonary alveolus are evaginations from the walls of the smallest bronchioles but most of them are clusters supplies by alveolar ducts.

They provide a large surface area for exchange of pulmonary gases

There are 3 layers that CO2 and O2 must diffuse through:

1. respiratory epitheliocytes of the alveolar wall (air)

2. thin layer of c.t. proper

3. endothelium (simple squamous) forming the capillary wall (blood)

18

What are the cells types of the alveoli?

1. Respiratory Epitheliocytes - form part of "air-blood barrier"

2. Granular Epitheliocytes - secrete surfactant (lessens tendency of lungs to collapse)

3. Macrophages

19

Name (be very specific) the structures which must be ligated (tied off) and transected (severed) to perform a pulmonectomy and a pulmonary lobectomy.


Check this one!?!?

1. Nerves
2. Lymphatic Vessels
3. Bronchi
4. Pulmonary Artery
5. Pulmonary Veins (2)

*reasons for removing a lung: cancer, severe trauma, organ donation

20

Differentiate the thorax/thoracic cavity and the pleura/pleural cavity.

Thorax - regional segment of trunk inferior to neck, anterior to the back, and superior to the abdomen

Thoracic Cavity - organ-filled space within the thorax

Pleura - covers the walls of the thoracic cavity and invests the surfaces of the thoracic organs

Pleural Cavity - small spaces between the visceral and parietal pleurae

21

Define the two major subtypes of pleurae and the three regional subdivisions of the parietal pleura.

1. Visceral Pleura (on organ)

2. Parietal Pleura (lines walls of thoracic cavity)

- diaphragmatic pleura
- costal pleura
- mediastinal pleura

22

List those structures located totally within the thoracic cavity, those that pass through it, and those that enter/leave it.

Located in the Thoracic Cavity:

heart, pericardial cavity, lungs, pleural cavities, lymph nodes, superior vena cava

Pass through the Thoracic Cavity:

esophagus, thoracic duct, sympathetic trunks, and vagal nerve trunks

Pass into or out of Thoracic Cavity:

trachea, inferior vena cava, right lymphatic duct, azygos vein, aorta, and other vessels

23

Define mediastinum and indicate the structures which are included in it.

Mediastinum - divides thoracic cavity

includes:

heart, esophagus, trachea, aorta, some vessels, thoracic duct, and vagal nerves as well as the pleura that covers them

24

Name the three openings in the diaphragm and state what each one transmits.

1. Aortic Hiatus: descending aorta, azygos vein, and thoracic duct

2. Esophageal Hiatus: esophagus and vagal nerve trunks

3. Venal Caval foramen (caval foramen) : inferior vena cava

25

Explain the mechanics of respiration.

1. Diaphragm contracts with the help of some mm. of the thoracic wall
2. This flattens the cavity forcing the liver and other abdominal viscera inferiorly
3. This lengthens the thoracic cavity and reduces the intra- pleural pressure
4. The decreased pressure causes air to rush in = inspiration
5. Expiration occurs when the diaphragms relaxes and pushes back up
6. Intra- pleural pressure increases and air is pushed out = expiration
7. the natural tendency of the lungs to shrink also contributes to expiration and air being forced out

26

Name two things that cause the lungs to have a tendency to collapse.

1. Lots of elastic tissue in their stroma

2. surface tension of thin layer of fluid lining each alveolus

27

Define the four lung volumes and the four lung capacities and state their inter-relationships.

a) Tidal Volume - volume of air inspired and expired (500 ml at rest; increases w/ exercise)

b) Inspiratory Reserve Volume - volume of air that can be forcefully inhaled (3000 ml)

c) Expiratory Reserve Volume - volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled (1000 ml)

d) Residual Volume - air left after forcing out all air possible (1000 ml)

28

Define the four lung volumes and the four lung capacities and state their inter-relationships.

Continued...

Vital Capacity - a + b + c

Total Lung Capacity - a + b + c + d

Inspiratory Capacity - a + b

Functional Residual Capacity - c + d

29

Explain how to perform the abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver.

1. Approach choking individual from behind
2. Reach around victim's trunk
3. Position fist on anterior abdomen just below the sternum
4. Use other arm to "bear hug" squeeze and use your fist to force it into abdomen
5. This results in air being squeezed out of lungs and hopefully dislodging object

30

Explain how pneumothorax, hemothorax, or a diaphragmatic hernia can result in dyspnea.

Pneumothorax - introducing air into pleural cavities ex) bullet wound, stab

Hemothorax - blood entering pleural cavities

Diaphragmatic hernia - (ruptured diaphragm) allows liver, stomach, and or intestines to enter thoracic cavity

* all of these conditions prevent lungs from expanding which causes difficulty in breathing or DYSPNEA