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Flashcards in Assessment Deck (21)
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1

Goals of Assessment

Assist learning and increase motivation (student centered)

Measure individual student achievement (student centered)

Evaluate programs and inform instructional decisions (teacher centered)

Develop metacognition (student centered)

2

Education acc. to Diane Ravitch

"Education means to lead forth, but it is impossible to lead anyone anywhere without knowing where you want to go"

3

3 important aspects

Measurement
- Assigning a numeric value

Assessment
- Information gained relative to a goal

Evaluation
- Making judgements

4

Assessment acc. to Pellegrino

A tool designed to observe students' behavior and produce data that can be used to draw reasonable inferences about what students know

Reasoning from evidence

5

Theory-based view

Observation
- Things students do, say, or create

Interpretation
- Tools used for measurement

Cognition
- Theories and assumptions of learning

6

Evidence centered assessment design

Claims
- Exactly what knowledge do you want students to have and how do you want them to know it?

Evidence
- What will you accept as evidence that a student has the desired knowledge?
- How will you analyze and interpret the evidence?

Task
- What task(s) will the students perform to communicate their knowledge?

^Iteration and Alignment

7

Types of Assessments

Informal vs. Formal

Formative vs. Summative

Norm-referenced vs. Criterion-referenced

Traditional vs. Authentic

8

Informal vs. Formal Assessments

Formal
- A preplanned, systematic way to look at what students know or have learned
- Typically announced ahead of time so tat students can prepare
- Examples: Tests, homework, projects, papers

Informal
- Spontaneous, day-to-day observations of student progress
- Examples: Listening, oberserving student interactions, asking questions, etc.

9

Formative vs. Summative Assessments

Formative: "Assessment for learning"
- Determines student progress over the course of learning
- Part of the instructional process; informs and drives instruction
- Occurs on a daily basis

Summative: "Assessment of learning"
- Measures and evaluates students' mastery of content & skills
- Can inform decision making (e.g., honors track, placing out of later courses)
- Occurs at the end of a period of learning (e.g., end of unit, semester, year)

10

Norm- vs. Criterion- Referenced Assessments

Norm-Referenced:
- Compares students' performance to that of other students
- "Grading on a curve" via a Standard Normal Distribution
- Encourages competition

Criterion-Referenced:
- Compares students' performance to a predetermined standard
- Encourages cooperation

11

Traditional vs. Authentic Assessments

Traditional
- What we typically think of as assessment in schools
- Examples: Standardized tests, quizzes, papers, oral presentations

Authentic
- Engaging in meaningful activities that require students to apply their knowledge and skills in real-world contexts
- Examples: Portfolios, exhibitions, demonstrations, performances

12

Examples of Types of Assessments

Formal
- Tests, homework, projects, papers

Informal
- Listening, observing student interactions, asking questions

Formative
- Exit slip, check for understanding, in-class work, homework

Summative
- Unit test, term paper, final project

Norm-Referenced
- Curved test, 2 points added to weekly synthesis

Criterion-Referenced
- Paper scored by rubric, text with correct answers

Traditional
- Tests, papers, quizzes, oral presentations

Authentic
- Portfolios, performances, demonstrations, internships

13

Characteristics of good/bad assessments

What helps
- Specific and concrete feedback
- Informative learning experience (for students and teachers)
- Knowledge of what to study and when is motivating

What hurts
- Emphasis on quantity over content quality
- Emphasis on grades over feedback for improvement
- Emphasis on comparison with other learners

14

How to use assessment to prevent learning

Keep students in the dark about the rules

Do all the assessment at the end

Knowing the identity of the student who has done each piece of work

Stick firmly to deadlines

15

Evaluating an assessment technique

What kind of assessment does this technique seem to be most useful for?

What are some of the benefits of using this technique for assessment?

What are some of the drawbacks for this technique for assessment?

What kinds of applications could you envision adapting this technique for outside of a classroom?

16

Assessing Assessment: Reliability

Consistency of the assessment

Ability to receive the same result every time (AKA precision)

Examples:
- Get (approx.) the same score every time a test is taken
- Two graders agree on the same score when grading

17

Assessing assessment: Validity

How well the assessment measures what it claims to

Ability to measure the appropriate construct (AKA accuracy)

Examples
- A rules may be a valid measure for length (good0 but not for volume (bad)
- A spelling test with words that were taught in a previous unit (good)
- Having students rate the professor when the professor is in the room (bad)
- Students score high on written driving exam but drive poorly behind the wheel (bad)

18

Assessing Assessment: Fairness

Unbiased so that all students have an equal likelihood of success

19

Assessment Today: What we assess

Assess facts and information in and for themselves

What we need: Assessments of problem solving and 21st century skills

20

Assessment today: How we assess

Assessments are one-off measurement events

What we need: Assessments that track different information over time and integrate learning and assessment

21

Assessment today: Why we assess

Use assessments as "gatekeepers" to sort students and punish teachers

What we need: Assessments that measure the growth of students, provide schools and parents feedback for making decisions, and account for the different opportunities students have had to learn