Day 21: Motivation and Interest Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Day 21: Motivation and Interest Deck (25)
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(Problem Solving continued) Well-Defined vs. Ill-Defined

Well-Defined problems
- Clear goals
- Only one correct solution
- Structure procedures for reaching a solution
- All information is specified

Ill-Defined problems
- Ambiguous goals
- More than one solution
- No generally agreed-upon strategy for reaching a solution
- One or more features of the problem are not specified or are ambiguous


Well-Structured Problem-Solving Process

- Identify the problem goal
- Represent the problem
- Select a strategy
- Implement the strategy
- Evaluate the results


Problem-Solving Paradox

- School tends to teach well-defined problems
- In real life we face problems related to money, careers, social relationships, and happiness that are ill-defined


Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (Cindy Hmelo-Silver)

Active approach to learning in which learners collaborate in understanding and solving complex, ill-structured problems


PBL Example

(The Mr. Ho example)


In Summary

Problem solving is a complex process, but it is the foundation of learning and functioning in the world
- Ill-structured vs. well-structured
- In real world problems, there are well-structured pieces to ill structured problems
- Problem solving is a very specific form of transfer
- It's goal directed, with a specific end in mind


Definition of Motivation

An internal state that arouses us to action, pushes us in particular directions, and keeps us engaged in certain activities


Why motivate?

Initiation, Intensity, and Persistence all increase


Motivation affects...



What motivates you?

- Awards, rewards
- Money, payment
- Food
- Praise
- Grades (good or bad)
- Status, approval
- Health, mental health
- Environment/Context
- Exciting, novel, challenging

- Personality
- Enjoyment
- Perceived ability
- Mastery
- Goals
- Faith
- Pride
- Growth
- Identity


Types of motivation sources

Extrinsic and Intrinsic


Extrinsic Motivation

An environmentally created reason to engage in an action or activity
- "DO this in order to get THAT" type of motivation


Intrinsic Motivation

The inherent desire to engage in an activity and to exercise and develop one's capacities
- "I'm DOING THIS because IT is..." type of motivation


Paying for Motivation?

"It is easy to get people to do things by paying them if you've got enough money and they've got the necessary skills, but they will keep doing it only as long as you keep paying them."
- Edward Deci


The role of extrinsic motivation

Amotivation -> Extrinsic Motivation -> Intrinsic Motivation


Why do we want to increase intrinsic motivation?

- Better conceptual understanding and quality of learning
- Greater creativity
- Optimal functioning and well-being

Why might we want to avoid extrinsic motivation?
- Lower performance quality
- Interference with learning process
- May undermine future autonomous self-regulation


What Hurts Motivation?

- Prescribing all task and micromanaging
- Rewarding for engaging in tasks that are already intrinsically motivating


Situated Motivation

Motivation is partly a function of the learning environment
- Factors can have an effect
- Instructional materials
- Relationship with teachers
- Evaluation methods


How to motivate?

The proper question is NOT, 'How can people motivate others?', but rather, 'How can people create the conditions within which others will motivate themselves?'



- What is the difference?
- Interest
- Psychological state characterized by effort, attention, and affect (Situational Interest)
- A pre-disposition to re-engage with certain content (Individual Interest)

- Motivation
- An internal state that arouse us to action, pushes us in particular directions, and keeps us engaged in certain activities


Situational Interest

- A psychological state
- Affective
- Positive feelings
- Cognitive qualities
- Perceived Value
- Attention


Individual Interest

- Stable predisposition or preference for specific content

- Affective
- Deepened positive feelings

- Cognitive qualities
- Stored value
- Stored knowledge


How to develop individual interest

Social Influences

Exposure -> Attention (Triggered situational interest) -> Needs and Goals Met (Maintained Situational interest, Emerging individual interest) -> Well-developed individual interest


Why interest

Support for interest increases
- Motivation
- Engagement
- Learning
- Future Re-engagement


Specific Interventions to promote interest

Triggering interest
- Structural features
- Context personalization

Maintaining Situational Interest
- Personal importance
- Utility-Value

Individual Interest
- Challenge
- Autonomy
- Strategic Support