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Flashcards in Day 11: More IPT Deck (20)
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Long-Term Memory (LTM)

- Capacity: Unlimited
- Forms of Storage:
- Language, images, sensations, abstractions, etc.
- Interconnected
- Duration
- Forgetting: Poor retrieval?
- Dependent on encoding?


LTM Encoding Processes

- Selection: Choosing the information to attend to and subsequently encode in LTM
- Rehearsal:
- Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating something over and over in a short time period to keep information in working memory
- Elaborative Rehearsal (aka Elaboration): Rehearsal that helps learners make associations between the new information and things they already know


LTM Encoding Processes (Continued)

- Rote Learning: Learning information via maintenance rehearsal
- Meaningful Learning: Relating new information to knowledge already stored in LTM
- Book differentiates between this and elaboration; for our purposes, they are synonymous
- Facilitates both storage and retrieval
- Self-reference effect is particularly helpful
- Examples of elaboration: Mnemonic devices, Anecdotes, Examples, Descriptions


LTM Encoding Processes (Continued)

- Internal Organization: When pieces of new information are interconnected in some way
- Most effective when learner-generated (not teacher-generated)
- Examples of internal organization: Hierarchies, Graphic Organizers (charts, tables, graphs), chunking into meaningful pieces


Chunking (Example)

- Ericsson, Chase, and Faloon (1980)
- Male undergraduate student memorized random strings of numbers for 1 hour a day, 3-5 days a week, for a year and a half
- Memory span increased from 7 to 79 digits
- Not instructed to chunk in any way or use any strategy at all
- Invented his own strategy: 3492 was encoded as "3 minutes and 49 point 2 seconds, near world-record mile time"/He was a runner!


LTM Encoding Processes (Continued)

- Visual Imagery: Mental pictures that capture new information
- Powerful means of encoding information into LTM
- Often superior to verbally stored information
- Ex: "Seeing" something on a page of a book, but not being able to recall the words themselves
- Tend to be imprecise representations of information


LTM: Forgetting

- Forgetting: Loss of information from memory or the inability to access information
- Failure to store or consolidate information
- Failure to retrieve information
- Decay: The gradual fading of information over time
- Interference Theory:
- Proactive Interference: New information is lost because it is mixed up with previously learned information
- Retroactive Interference: Previously learned information is lost because it is mixed up with new information


Ebbinghaus' Learning Curve

Performance measure vs Number of trials or attempts at learning


Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve

% Remembered VS Days after learning


Central Executive

- The CEO if the dual-store memory model
- Controls and monitors the flow of information throughout the memory system
- Matures over childhood and adolescence
- Vast individual differences
- Controls metacognition


Central Executive Processes

- Allocating attention (SR -> WM)
- Maintenance Rehersal (Keeping info. in WM)
- Encoding (WM -> LTM)
- Retrieval (LTM -> WM)
- Organization (In WM, and during encoding into LTM)
- Metacognition ("Thinking about thinking")


Types of Knowledge

- Declarative Knowledge: Knowing "that"
- Episodic Knowledge: Personal life experiences (Ex. "I remember when I graduated from college")
- Semantic Knowledge: General knowledge of the world (Ex. "I know that even numbers end with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8")
- Procedural Knowledge: Knowing "how"
- Conditional Knowledge: Knowing "when" (Ex. "If...then" knowledge)
- Conceptual Knowledge: Knowing "why"
- Combines declarative and procedural knowledge


Types of Knowledge (Continued)

Explicit vs. Implicit Knowledge
- Explicit Knowledge: Knowledge that you can easily recall and explain (Ex: The names of the Great Lakes, the steps to baking a blueberry pie, or why the seasons change)
- Implicit Knowledge: Knowledge that you can't consciously recall or explain (Learning a foreign language/Memory loss from traumatic brain injury)


Memory Diagram

Long-term Memory (Lifetime)
- Explicit Memory (conscious)
- Declarative Memory (facts, concepts, and events)
- Episodic Memory (events and experiences
- Semantic Memory (facts and concepts)
- Implicit Memory (unconscious)
- Procedural Memory (skills and habits)


Clifford Nass on Multitasking (Stanford University)

- Research in social science says that people who chronically multitask show an enormous range of deficits
- The people who says they're the best at multitasking because they do it all the time
- People who multitask all the time can't filter out irrelevancy.
- They can't manage a working memory.
- They're chronically distracted
- They initiate much larger parts of their brain that are irrelevant to the task at hand


What activities can we multitask?

- Depends on automaticity and attention
- Reading, writing, talking, and listening cannot be down simultaneously



- Not actually doing multiple things at once
- Shifting attention from one thing to another
- Losing processing time and attention with shifts


Phones and Achievement

- When comparing students in a control, low-distraction, and high-distraction environment
- Students that did not use their phone
- Took more notes
- Were able to recall more detailed information the lecture
- Scored a full letter grade and a half higher than students actively using their phones


Summary of Multitasking

- Can decrease test score and problem-solving ability
- Decrease productivity
- Increase time it takes to complete a task
- Affects attention and focus
- Can be kept in check by using central executive to control attention and self-regulate our efforts


IPT: in summary

- IPT is a group of cognitive theories that focuses on how people process stimuli in our environment
- Learning: Acquisition of mental representations
- Dual-Store Memory Model
- Sensory Register
- Working Memory
- Long-term Memory
- Encoding and Retrieval
- Forgetting and Interference