Day 26 Cumulative Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Day 26 Cumulative Review Deck (50)
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1

What is learning? (Acc. to Omrod)

"A long-term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience"

2

Relationship between identity and culture

Identity expresses cultural understandings

Reflecting embeds identity in culture

3

When does Identity matter?

Identity salience: the likelihood the identity will be invoked in diverse situations

Stereotype threat: Situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their social group

Stereotype Exception-to-the-Rule: When people see or interact with a person that doesn't conform to a particular stereotype, they make an exception for that particular person

4

Thoughts about Identity/Culture

The problem isn't that we recognize difference or account for identity histories, the problem occurs when we place value on different histories or presume all people of one identity are the same

Remember that our students are people and can't always check their I/C at the door

5

Culture Defined & Terms

The knowledge, values and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people and allow them to solve the problems of living in their environment

Cultural Capital: Refers to the non-financial social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means

6

The Danger of a Single Story

Understand the main themes of this TED Talk and ideas discussed in class

7

Transfer Defined

Transfer is when we apply knowledge or skills
- In new ways
- In new situations, or
- In familiar situations with different content

8

Why is transfer important?

Student spend a majority of time outside the classroom

9

Problem solving

Life is mostly low-road transfer

Identical situation (Pure recall) -> Near transfer -> Far transfer

Ex. Piano -> Keyboard -> Accordian -> Clarinet

10

Transfer, Problem Solving

Faced with a new or difficult challenge, what do we do?
- Try to find a similar past experience (Transfer)
- Try to use a strategy like analogy or a heuristic (Problem-solving)

11

Well-Defined vs. Ill-Defined

Well-Defined problems have clear goals, only one correct solution, and a certain method for finding it

Ill-defined problems have ambiguous goals, more than one acceptable solution, and no generally agree-upon strategy for reaching a solution

12

Motivation

The proper question is NOT 'how can people motivate others?' but rather, 'how can people create the conditions within which others will motivate themselves?'

13

2 types of motivation

Extrinsic & Instrinsic

14

How to develop individual interest

Social influences:

Exposure -> Attention (triggered situational interest) -> Needs & Goals Met (Maintained situational interest -> Emerging individual interest) -> Well-developed individual interest

15

Goals: Jane, Joan, June (example)

3 girls are playing basketball and want to play well for different reasons

Jane: I want to show everyone how good I am
- Performance-approach goal

Joan: I really don't want to screw this up
- Performance-avoidance goal

June: I want to be a better player
- Mastery goal

16

Mindsets

Fixed: Intelligence is stable, uncontrollable, and ability can't be changed

Growth: Intelligence is unstable, controllable, and changing.. . Effort leads to improvement

17

Self-efficacy

Belief in one's capacity to succeed at tasks

Judgement of confidence

Context-sensitive

"Can I do this?"

"How well can I do this?"

18

Key Principles of Expertise

Fluent retrieval (chess)

Meaningful patterns (chess)

Context and access to knowledge (physics)

Expertise and pedagogical content knowledge (teachers)

Adaptive expertise and flexible approaches (historians)

19

Assessment Examples

Formal
- Tests, homework, projects, papers

Informal
- Listening, observing student interactions, asking questions

Formative
- Exit slip, check for understanding, in-class work, homework

Summative
- Unit test, term paper, final project

Norm-Referenced
- Curved test, 2 points added to weekly synthesis

Criterion-Referenced
- Paper scored by rubric, text with correct answers

Traditional
- Tests, papers, quizzes, oral presentations

Authentic
- Portfolios, performances, demonstrations, internships

20

Assessment

Theory-driven

Evidence-Based

Aligned with curriculum and standards

Valid and reliable

21

Questions to ask when using learning technologies

- Are we using the power of technology to change learning?

- Or we simply using technology to deliver the same information in the same traditional way, but on a computer?

22

Games

Socially situated

Games as content; assessment; bait

23

Characteristics of problem solvers in games

Urgent optimism

Social fabric

Blissful productivity

Epic meaning

24

Serious Games

Serious games and simulations
- Simulate real-world problems & communication
- Problem solving is focus
- Role playing and immersion are critical

25

Behaviorism

Theory of learning that is interested n observable changes in behavior

Conditioning: Forming associations or connections between experiences (stimuli) and neural impulses (responses)

26

CC vs. OC

Classical Conditioning: Learning occurs through paired associations between UCS and NS to produce a CS
- Involuntary

Operant Conditioning: Learning occurs by associating a response with a consequence
- Voluntary

27

Which consequences matter? OR How do you want to change the behavior?

Do you want to increase a desirable behavior?
- Reinforcement

Do you want to decrease an undesirable behavior?
- Punishment

Are we adding a stimulus or taking one away?
- Apply (positive) or remove (negative)

28

Social Cognitive Theory

In SCT, learning occurs from interacting with and watching other people, as well as witnessing the resulting consequences

It emphasizes learning by observation and modeling

29

Social Component of Learning

For good or bad we are going to learn from watching others

Ex. Bobo doll experiment

30

SCT: Modeling

Modeling: learning by observing what other people do and the resulting consequences

Modeling can
- Teach new behaviors (observational or vicarious learning) or new ways of thinking