Flashcards in Day 26 Cumulative Review Deck (50)
What is learning? (Acc. to Omrod)
"A long-term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience"
Relationship between identity and culture
Identity expresses cultural understandings
Reflecting embeds identity in culture
When does Identity matter?
Identity salience: the likelihood the identity will be invoked in diverse situations
Stereotype threat: Situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their social group
Stereotype Exception-to-the-Rule: When people see or interact with a person that doesn't conform to a particular stereotype, they make an exception for that particular person
Thoughts about Identity/Culture
The problem isn't that we recognize difference or account for identity histories, the problem occurs when we place value on different histories or presume all people of one identity are the same
Remember that our students are people and can't always check their I/C at the door
Culture Defined & Terms
The knowledge, values and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people and allow them to solve the problems of living in their environment
Cultural Capital: Refers to the non-financial social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means
The Danger of a Single Story
Understand the main themes of this TED Talk and ideas discussed in class
Transfer is when we apply knowledge or skills
- In new ways
- In new situations, or
- In familiar situations with different content
Why is transfer important?
Student spend a majority of time outside the classroom
Life is mostly low-road transfer
Identical situation (Pure recall) -> Near transfer -> Far transfer
Ex. Piano -> Keyboard -> Accordian -> Clarinet
Transfer, Problem Solving
Faced with a new or difficult challenge, what do we do?
- Try to find a similar past experience (Transfer)
- Try to use a strategy like analogy or a heuristic (Problem-solving)
Well-Defined vs. Ill-Defined
Well-Defined problems have clear goals, only one correct solution, and a certain method for finding it
Ill-defined problems have ambiguous goals, more than one acceptable solution, and no generally agree-upon strategy for reaching a solution
The proper question is NOT 'how can people motivate others?' but rather, 'how can people create the conditions within which others will motivate themselves?'
2 types of motivation
Extrinsic & Instrinsic
How to develop individual interest
Exposure -> Attention (triggered situational interest) -> Needs & Goals Met (Maintained situational interest -> Emerging individual interest) -> Well-developed individual interest
Goals: Jane, Joan, June (example)
3 girls are playing basketball and want to play well for different reasons
Jane: I want to show everyone how good I am
- Performance-approach goal
Joan: I really don't want to screw this up
- Performance-avoidance goal
June: I want to be a better player
- Mastery goal
Fixed: Intelligence is stable, uncontrollable, and ability can't be changed
Growth: Intelligence is unstable, controllable, and changing.. . Effort leads to improvement
Belief in one's capacity to succeed at tasks
Judgement of confidence
"Can I do this?"
"How well can I do this?"
Key Principles of Expertise
Fluent retrieval (chess)
Meaningful patterns (chess)
Context and access to knowledge (physics)
Expertise and pedagogical content knowledge (teachers)
Adaptive expertise and flexible approaches (historians)
- Tests, homework, projects, papers
- Listening, observing student interactions, asking questions
- Exit slip, check for understanding, in-class work, homework
- Unit test, term paper, final project
- Curved test, 2 points added to weekly synthesis
- Paper scored by rubric, text with correct answers
- Tests, papers, quizzes, oral presentations
- Portfolios, performances, demonstrations, internships
Aligned with curriculum and standards
Valid and reliable
Questions to ask when using learning technologies
- Are we using the power of technology to change learning?
- Or we simply using technology to deliver the same information in the same traditional way, but on a computer?
Games as content; assessment; bait
Characteristics of problem solvers in games
Serious games and simulations
- Simulate real-world problems & communication
- Problem solving is focus
- Role playing and immersion are critical
Theory of learning that is interested n observable changes in behavior
Conditioning: Forming associations or connections between experiences (stimuli) and neural impulses (responses)
CC vs. OC
Classical Conditioning: Learning occurs through paired associations between UCS and NS to produce a CS
Operant Conditioning: Learning occurs by associating a response with a consequence
Which consequences matter? OR How do you want to change the behavior?
Do you want to increase a desirable behavior?
Do you want to decrease an undesirable behavior?
Are we adding a stimulus or taking one away?
- Apply (positive) or remove (negative)
Social Cognitive Theory
In SCT, learning occurs from interacting with and watching other people, as well as witnessing the resulting consequences
It emphasizes learning by observation and modeling
Social Component of Learning
For good or bad we are going to learn from watching others
Ex. Bobo doll experiment