Day 13: Study Strategies and Learning Styles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Day 13: Study Strategies and Learning Styles Deck (17)
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Types of Strategies

- Quizzing: not looking at notes
- Flashcards
- Explaining to a friend
- Recreate diagrams
- Rewrite notes
- Concept maps
- Watching videos of the material
- Make acronyms
- Talking about ideas out loud
- Tutoring


Study Strategies

- The intentional use of cognitive processes to accomplish a particular learning task
- Metacognition:
- Person knowledge
- Task knowledge
- Strategy knowledge

- Self-Regulation:
- Learning goal
- Monitor learning
- Modify strategies to achieve goal


Common Misconceptions about Learning processes

- "Masses learning is totally better than distributed"
- "If it is stored in memory, I shall surely retrieve it"
- "Making errors hinders my learning"
- "Rereading and highlighting work best for me"
- "Learning is best when it is most easily done"


Study Strategies

- High Utility
- Practice Testing
- Distributed Practice
- Moderate Utility
- Elaborative Interrogation
- Self-explanation
- Interleaved practice
- Low Utility
- Summarization
- Highlighting/underlining
- Keyword mnemonics
- Imagery for text
- Rereading



Basically, students do not have to work very hard to reread notes or retrieve info from memory when they have just completed this same activity
- May be misled by the ease of this second task and think they know they material better than they really do
- Ex. Bahrick and Hall, 2005


According to the report, Highlighting vs. Nonhighlighting

- Equal test performance
- But, marking a lot of text was correlated with poor performance


Underlining and Highlighting

- Research says that this strategy generally finds few benefits
- Highlight after you are done reading the paragraph
- Underline one sentence in each paragraph
- Be thoughtful and reflective about this



- Learn to cope with anxiety
- Hold positive beliefs about self, task, and attitude
- Hold a growth mindset!
- Create a positive study environment
- Manage study time and attention


Distributed Practice

- Develop a routine/habit of study
- Spread studying out
- Develop study habits and routines instead of binge studying (cramming)


Quizzing- The testing effect

- Memory and learning is enhanced by retrieval (carrier and Pashler,1992)
- Enhanced learning as a function of retrieval, not additional study time (Roadiger and Karpicke, 2006)
- Study passage 4 times (SSSS)
- Study passage 3 times, 1 test (SSST)
- Study passage 1 time, 3 tests (STTT)


PQ4R Method of Reading

Focuses students on meaningful organization of information and involves them on other effective strategies such as question generation, elaboration, and distributed practice
- Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review


Why are the most ineffective study habits the most popular?

- Students are not instructed to use effective strategies
- Teachers don't know about the research on effective strategies
- Premium on teaching students critical thinking skills and not study skills/self-regulated learning
- Ineffective methods are easier


How can we promote the use of effective learning/study strategies?

- Practice
- Focus on prior connections
- Variety
- Learn why
- Model and scaffold strategies
- Collaboration with classmates
- Challenge epistemic beliefs


There is no magic shortcut

- Find ways to increase your time studying
- Repetition/Practice
- The goal is to find ways to study more often not necessarily longer
- Use as many styles, representations, and strategies as the difficulty requires or time allows
- Transform the information!


Learning Styles

- Verbal: Words are your strongpoint. Prefer to use words both in speech and in writing
- Logical/Mathematical: Learning is easier for you if you use logic, reasoning, systems, and sequences
- Social: You like to learn new things as part of a group. Explaining your understanding to a group helps you to learn
- Visual: You prefer to use pictures, diagrams, images and spatial understanding to help you learn
- Musical/Auditory: You prefer using music, sound, and/or rhythms to help you learn
- Solitary: You like to work alone. Self-study and prefer your own company when learning
- Physical/Kinaesthetic: Use your hands, body and sense of touch to help you learn. Might act things out
- Combination: Your learning style is a combination of two or more of these styles

NOT supported by educational research


Use of Learning Styles

- Often used to separate students into groups and teach TO those preferences
- Connect with students
- Increase non-traditional skills
- Vary Assignment and instruction style


Key Takeaways and Questions

- Popular Study Strategies and Learning styles are not supported by educational research

- Be critical of educational methods that are not research-based

- How can we bridge the gap between research and instruction?