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Flashcards in Day 10: Exam Review, IPT Deck (17)
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1

Information Processing Theory (IPT)

- IPT is a group of cognitive theories
- Focuses on how people process the information they obtain from the environment
- Early views of IPT modeled brains after computers
- Knowledge is organized and interrelated

2

Assumptions of Cognitive Theories and IP

- Uniquely human learning processes
- Learning= Acquisition of mental representations
- Formation mental representations or associations
- Connections are formed between pieces of knowledge in the brain to facilitate acquisition and storage in memory
- Learners actively participate and control learning
- Observable behaviors allow for inferences about unobservable mental processes
- Reaction time as a measure

3

Dual-Store Memory Model (Process)

- Central Executive (Executive Functions, Control Processes) > Input into Sensory Register > All information lost in .5 to 2 seconds
- Central Executive > Input into Sensory Register > Attention > Working Memory > Unrehearsed information lost in 10 to 15 seconds
- Central Executive > Input into Sensory Register > Attention > Working Memory > Maintenance Rehearsal/Encoding/Retrieval > Long-term Memory > Some information lost over time

4

Dual-Store Memory Model (about the model)

- Proposes that there are three components to memory (SR, WM, LTM)
- Information is received by the sensory register then sent into working memory where it is either moved to long-term memory or lost.
- Info can also go from LTM to WM
- Memory: Ability to recall previously acquired information (Is not the same as learning, which is the acquisition of new information or skills)

5

Sensory Register (SR)

- Capacity: Very large capacity
- Forms of storage: Stored in same form that it is sensed in
- Duration: Very brief duration (< 2 sec)/ Can't truly measure because it's a subconscious process

6

Perception

- Perception: The process of assigning meaning to stimuli; we match input to known information
- Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Processing:
- Bottom-Up: Perceiving the stimulus as is (Ex: Smell of a freshly basked chocolate chip cookie)
- Top-Down: Applying prior knowledge to interpret the stimuli (Ex: Dr. Seuss's trees)

7

Perception (Principles from Gesalt Psychology)

- Perception is often different from reality (Ex: Phi Phenomenon)
- The whole is more than the sum of its parts (Ex: Transposition experiment with chickens)
- We impose structure on our environment and organize our experiences in predictable ways

8

Law of Proximity (example)

- ONEVERYHIGHWAY
- ONE VERY HIGH WAY
- ON EVERY HIGHWAY

9

Law of Similarity

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10

Law of Closure

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11

Law of Pragnanz

- AKA Law of Simplicity
- K.I.S.S.= Keep It Simple, Stupid!

12

Attention

- To move information from the sensory register to the working memory, we need to pay attention to that information
- Certain stimuli draw attention better than others: Motion/Novelty/Emotion/Size/Incongruity/Personal Significance/Intensity/Social Cues
- Attention has a limited capacity

13

Working Memory (WM)

- Capacity:Very limited capacity/7 + or - 2/Cognitive load
- Forms of storage: Often auditory/Also can be visual, spatial, and tactile
- Duration: Less than 30 seconds/Susceptible to decay and interference (more info later)

14

Working Memory: Example

- Task: Shown a list of words, memorize the list, write down as many as you can remember
- "Bed, Clock, Dream, Turn, Doze": Primacy Effect
- "Mattress, Snooze, Nod, Tired"
- "Insomnia, Rest, Toss, Yawn, Alarm"
- "Nap, Snore, Pillow": Recency Effect
- Night: Multiple exposures
- Artichoke: Isolation Effect
- Sleep: Associative memory

15

Serial Position Curve

- When recalling items from a list:
- Primacy Effect: Good recall for initial items
- Recency Effect: Good recall for last items
- Middle items not recalled well

16

Working Memory and Automaticity

- When responses are produced without conscious thought they have reached automaticity
- Beneficial because it frees up space in WM for other cognitive activities
- Automaticity Example: The Stroop Test

17

The Stroop Test

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