Day 12: Metacognition and Self-Regulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Day 12: Metacognition and Self-Regulation Deck (29)
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1

Metacognition

- "Thinking about thinking" (Flavell, 1979)
- "Monitoring and control of thought" (Martinez, 2006)
- Cognitive process, not a theory
- Includes: Planning, Monitoring, Reflecting, Evaluating

2

Metacognitive Knowledge

- Knowledge of our cognitive processes and how to regulate those processes in order for learning to take place
- Person knowledge
- Task knowledge
- Strategy knowledge

3

Person Knowledge

- Understanding your own capabilities
- Strengths
- Weaknesses
- Personal accommodations

4

Task Knowledge

- How we perceive the task
- In terms of: Difficulty and Relevance
- Changes as children age

5

Strategy Knowledge

Awareness of the strategies that we can use to improve our learning as well as when and why to apply them

6

Example of person/task/strategy knowledge

"I know that I (person knowledge) have difficulty with word problems (task knowledge), so I will answer the computational problems first and save the word problems for last (strategy knowledge)

7

From Info Processing Theory

- Declarative: "that" it exists
- Procedural: "how" to do it
- Conceptual: "why" do it
- Episodic: "when and where" to do it

8

Metacognitive knowledge in similar terms

Conceptual and Episodic are conditional

9

Metacognitive Knowledge

- Knowledge of our cognitive processes and how to regulate those processes in order for learning to take place
- 3 types
- Declarative Knowledge
- Procedural Knowledge
- Conditional Knowledge

10

Declarative Knowledge

- Declarative statement= "just the facts"
- The "meta": aware that you possess the knowledge

11

Procedural Knowledge

- Procedure= How to
- The "meta": Being aware of that process

12

Conditional Knowledge

- Conditional: Knowing when/how to use knowledge
- The "meta": Being aware of when to apply knowledge

13

Metacognitive Strategies

Purposeful act of attempting to control our cognitive processes to help us learn or accomplish our goals
- Goal setting/planning
- Monitoring
- Affecting
- Evaluating

14

Planning

Determine your goal
- What am I trying to accomplish
- What level of performance do I want to achieve?

How will you reach it
- What strategies do I need to use?
- Timelines/Benchmarks?

15

Monitoring

Assessment in action
- Self-questioning
- Do I understand this?
- Can I explain this to someone else?

Self-testing
- What have I learned so far?
- What do I still need to learn?

16

Affecting

Using what you've learned to change strategies

17

Evaluating

Examine your outcomes
- Were your strategies effective?
- Would you change anything for the future?

Feedback at this stage is important

18

Issues

- People are generally inaccurate about what they will remember and how much they understand

- Learners are overconfident about what they can recall

- When cognitive load increases, metacognition suffers

19

Examples of Metacognition in the Classroom

- Recognizing when you don't understand something
- Knowing how best to organize your notes to facilitate your own learning
- Knowing how to study so you will learn and remember the material
- Knowing your reading strengths and weaknesses

20

Self-Regulation vs. Meta-cognition

- Metacognition: Thinking about your own actions, motivatins, and thoughts

- Self-regulation: Controlling your own actions, motivations, and thoughts

21

Self-Regulation

Self-regulated learners:
- Set goals
- Plan an approach
- Control their attention and effort
- Use effective strategies
- Monitor their progress
- Self-evaluate and self-reflect

- Zimmerman's (2006) Model

22

Self-Regulation is related to...

- Motivation/Engagement
- Perceived control
- Goals/Values
- Self-Efficacy
- Metacognition

But learners need...
- Opportunities to learn self-regulatory skills
- Contexts in which to practice self-regulation

23

Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive Theory

- Cyclical process of evaluation and choice
- Social environment and observations of others help us to set standards and goals
- Self-efficacy also plays an important role

24

Self-Regulation and Constructivism

- Knowledge is constructed by the learner
- Focus on sociocultural influences
- Development of higher mental functions (such as self-regulation) through interactions with others and tools within a social system
- Moves from other-regulation to self-regulation

25

Self-Regulation Information Processing Theory

Focus here is on the use of learning strategies like:
- Rehearsal
- Elaboration
- Organization
- Comprehension Monitoring
- Affective Techniques

26

Self-Regulated Steps

- Analyze
- Plan
- Implement
- Monitor
- Modify

These strategies are not domain or context-specific. They can and should be transferred

27

Developing Self-Regulation Skills

- Teaching metacognitive and self-regulation strategies
- Modeling strategies
- Helping individuals set goals and evaluate progress towards their goals
- Providing specific feedback about progress
- Allowing individuals time to reflect on feedback and progress

28

Mischel's Marshmallow Test

- Executive Control
- Children who exhibited self-control in the experiment were shown to be more successful later in life

29

Metacognition and Self-Regulation: How are they different?

Metacognition
- Thinking about thinking
- Awareness
- Knowledge (3 types)

Self-Regulation
- Controlling cognitive activities
- An active process
- Involves practice

Both
- Self-awareness
- Intention to act