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Flashcards in Goals & Mindsets Deck (27)
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Why do we set goals?

Goals are related to who we want to be
- The Ideal Self

Goals are related to who we think we are
- The Actual Self

Actual Self -> Ideal Self
- Motivating or Devastating?



Achievement Goals
- Mastery
- Performance
- Approach
- Avoidance

Other Goals
- Work-Avoidance Goals
- Social Goals
- Career Goals


Achievement Goals

Mastery Goal
- Focused on acquiring knowledge or mastering a skill

Performance Goal
- Focused on performance in the eyes of others


Achievement Goals

Performance-approach Goal
- Want to display competency and garner approval

Performance-avoidance Goal
- Doesn't want to display incompetency and receive unfavorable judgements


Jane, Joan, June Example

3 girls are playing basketball and all want to play well for different reasons:

- Jane: I want to show everyone how good I am (Performance-approach Goal)

- Joan: I really don't want to screw this up (Performance-avoidance Goal)

- June: I want to be a better player (Mastery goal)


Mastery vs Performance Goals

- More intrinsically motivated
- Seek out challenges
- Interpret failure as need for more effort
- Remain calm during tests
- Achieve at higher levels

- More extrinsically motivated
- Avoid tasks that might reveal incompetence
- Interpret failure as lack of ability
- Feel anxious during tests
- Doesn't necessarily mean they achieve at lower levels


Encouraging Mastery & Performance Goals

- Describe intrinsic value of learning a skill
- Focus attention on progress being made
- Communicate role of understanding over rote memorization
- Have students explain and justify their reasoning

Performance (Places emphasis more on looking good than learning!)
- Post best papers on the wall
- Score tests on a curve
- Remind students that good grades are needed for college/grad school
- Emphasize desire to beat other students/teams


Work-Avoidance Goals

- When someone either doesn't want to do the task, or exert as little effort as possible

- What do they do?

- Why? (Lack of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation)


Social Goals

Our goals direct our social behavior (good/bad):

Want to feel powerful?
- Become a bully

Want to be liked/popular?
- Adopt that practices of the social group you want to join

Want to gain the teacher's approval?
- Work hard in class and participate


Career Goals

Solidify as we grow older

Often guided by cultural norms, familial expectations

Gender stereotypes
- Helping professions
- Work/family balance


Goal Intersectionality

Our goals can
- Overlap
- Conflict
- Exist separately


In-Class Activity about goals (Are my goals mastery or performance-based?)

Are my goals mastery or performance-based?

- Mastery Goal: Focused on acquiring knowledge or mastering a skill

- Performance Goal: Focused on performance in the eyes of others


Carol Dweck's Research

These are attributions!

Fixed mindset
- Entity theory of intelligence

Growth mindset
- Incremental theory of intelligence


Fixed Mindset

(i.e., "entity view")

Intelligence is stable, uncontrollable, fixed

Ability can't be changed
- Mistakes can be devastating
- View difficulties as obstacles and more likely t give up
- Learned helplessness is common


Growth Mindset

AKA "Incremental View"

Intelligence is unstable, controllable, changing

Challenges are energizing, not intimidating

Ability can be changed over time
- Mistakes can increase effort
- View difficulties as challenges to be overcome

- Effort will lead to improvement


Praising Intelligence vs. Effort (The Effects of Praise)

The Effects of Praise

- Children praised for their intelligence solved significantly fewer problems after a failure than they had before encountering difficulty

- In contrast, children praised for their effort solved more problems after their brush with adversity than they bad before it


Growth vs. Fixed Mind-Set (Mind-set and Math Grades)

Mind-Set and Math Grades

- Students who believed intelligence is malleable (growth mindset line) earned higher math grades in the fail of 7th grade than those who believed in static intelligence (fixed mind-set line)
- Even though the two groups had equivalent math achievement test scores in the 6th grade

- The grades of the growth mind-set group then improved significantly over the next two years, whereas the grades of the fixed mind-set students declined


How to Encourage a Growth Mindset

- Focus on effort!
- Praise for persistence, not intelligence
- Tell success stories emphasizing hard work & effort achieve goals
- Emphasize change through effort
- See mistakes as opportunities for learning
- Teach about the brain as a learning machine


Praising Effort, not success or intelligence (examples)

- I like the way you tried a lot of different strategies on that math problem until you finally got it

- That was a hard English assignment, but you stuck with it until you got it done

- I like that you took on a challenging project for your science class. You are going to learn a lot of great things.

- Mistakes are so interesting. Here's a wonderful mistake. Let's see what we can learn from it



Belief in one's capacity to succeed at tasks
- Can be about general ability or specific tasks performance

Judgement of confidence


"Can I do this?"

"How well can I do this?"


Self-efficacy Influences

- The choices we make
- The effort we put forth
- How long we persist
- How we feel


High Self-Efficacy

- See challenging problems as tasks to be mastered, rather than threats to be avoided

- Develop greater intrinsic interest and focus in their activities

- Set challenging goals and demonstrate a stronger sense of commitment to them

- Quickly recover their self-efficacy following setbacks and disappointments (Bandura, 1994)


Low Self-Efficacy

- Avoid difficult tasks and view them as personal threats

- Have a weak commitment to their goals and believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities

- Dwell on personal failings and negative outcomes, rather than how to succeed

- Quickly lost faith in their personal abilities and easily develop depression and stress (Bandura, 1994)


Learned Helplessness

Learned helplessness: The belief that we can't change the course of negative events, that failure is inevitable and insurmountable

Is a response to failure, NOT success

Is a control - NOT a competence - problem

Seligman* key theorist


Learned Helplessness Example (Seligman)

Animals must learn to jump barrier to avoid shock


Learned Helplessness and Students

- "Students that are repeatedly exposed to school failure are particularly at risk for the development of learned helplesness" (Sutherford & Singh, 2004)


Overcoming Learned Helplessness

- Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

- Change attributions from pessimistic to optimistic and more realistic