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Flashcards in ATP Deck (36)
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1

the energy required to reduced CO is proivded by the

absorption of protons (which are reraised to a higher energy state)

2

from photosynthesis throuhout carbohydrate metaoblism energy isn't changed by

flows

3

 Energy stored in ___ is converted to energy stored in ATP

reduced fuels

4

ATP drives work function returning energy to the environment as____

 heat (IR photons)

5

Life disorders its surroundings more or it orders itself by disordering light energy?

disorders its surrounding more

 

we use this to order ourselves

6

phosphoate bonds on atp are named 

alpha, beta, gamma going in (closest to sugar) to outward

7

two energy rich bounds in atp?

in the phopshoandhryride bonds ( between gamma and beta, beta and alpha)

8

reasons why the phosphoandrhydrides bonds are energy rich (3) 

1. there is charge repulsion that is releived upon breaking the  α-β or β-γ bonds

2. greater resonance stabilization of products after you break ADP + Pi or AMP + PPi

3. produces have more favorable interaction with water

9

ATP directly or indirectly drives 3 main work functions

1. mehcnaical work

2. tranport work

3. biosynthetic work

 

10

___ meets our immediate energy needs

ATP

11

___ can meet our long term needs

fats and protein

12

Why is ATP well suited for its role as energy carrier? (4)

• Number of ~P (i.e., 2)
• Soluble and mobile
• High affinity binding to enzymes
• Recognition handle (has the right bases for enzymes to bind)

13

The height of the energy barrier, ___ determines the rate of reaction

ΔG‡ (also “Ea”), 

14

All important biological molecules are at local energy ____

minima

 

this allows the body to control the use of these molecules

15

Cells control reactions by producing____ that allow
biological molecules to escape from energy minima

 regulated catalysts (enzymes)

16

Enzymes change the reaction___ and ____of the energy barrier (ΔG‡).

 path and lower the height

17

enzymes do not change ___

ΔG°ʹ′

18

why atp not adp?

sometimes cleaveage of one P bond is not enough

adp bound bind too weakly to enzymes

different bases are located on adp (recognition handl)

19

An intermediate thermodynamic value is consistent with ATP’s role as an___ and a ____

 

what couples such reactions? 

acceptor and a donor 

20

with the common intermediate principle

 

The total ΔG°ʹ′ for the two reactions is ____ by the enzyme

not altered 

21

 The exergonic reaction (ADP + Pi --> ATP ) is obligatorily coupled to the endergonic reaction (ATP
synthesis) by

 E-P, a common intermediate in both reactions

22

conversion of ATP to the different NTPs is ____. 

reversible

23

Why a Central Pool of Energy?

 

Due to the presence of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), the various NTP pools are able to (2) 

 share available energy and avoid rate-limiting steps (e.g. fleeing a predator).

24

Why a Central Pool of Energy?

 

the levels of ___ (4) reflect the cell energy state

ATP, ADP, AMP, and Pi

25

Regulatory enzymes have evolved regulatory binding sites. Some of these sites are able to sense the energy state of the cell by binding ___

adenine nucleotides.

26

ATP-generating pathways are inhibited by high levels of __?

stimulated by ___? 

inhibited by high ATP

stimulated with high levels of ADP and/orAMP

27

ATP-utilizing pathways are inhibited by high levels of __?

stimulated by ___? 

inhbiited by high levels of ADP and/or AMP

stimulated by high levels of ATP

28

The regulatory enzyme which turns a pathway on and off in response to the energy state of the cell usually catalyzes an _____ step in the pathway.

early step (feedback inhibition)

29

Vertebrate muscle and nerve (creatine kinase):

 

 

30

Adenylate kinase (ubiquitous)