2,4-dinitrophenol is what class that prevents oxidative phosphorla?
mechanism fo action of 2,4-dinitrophenol
Discharges the pH gradient
2,4-dinitrophenol sx? use?
Marked increase in metabolism profuse sweating, collapse, death.
Formerly used for weight reduction
what class is Gramicidin?
what sit he mechanism of action of Gramicidin
Forms a membrane pore permeable to protons
what are the sx of Gramicidin
Antimicrobial at low concentration. High concentration is fatal
what class is valinomycin?
Valinomycin mechanism of action
A membrane soluble, diffusional carrier of K+
Oligomycin is a ___
Prevents use of the electrochem. grad. to drive ATP synthesis
sx of Oligomycin
what are the Inhibitors of Electron
2. Amytal (barbiturates)
3. Antimycin A
inhibits chain at 1st coupling site
Rotenone sx? uses?
sx -- Nausea, vomiting, convulsions, death from respiratory paralysis.
use -- Used in a topical ointment for treatment of chiggers. Also used as a poison for harvesting fish and as an insecticide
what meds Inhibits chain at 1st coupling site?
Amytal (barbiturates) sx?
Nausea, vomiting, convulsions, death from respiratory paralysis.
(same as rotenone)
Antimycin A MOA
Inhibits chain at 2nd coupling site
Antimycin A sx? uses?
Fatal, used as fungicide and insecticide
Inhibits chain at cytochrome a3, blocks
O2 binding by binding to FeIII
Convulsions, unconsciousness, death from respiratory paralysis.
Antidote: nitrite and thiosulfate intravenously (oxidizes some hemoglobin to met
hemoglobin which binds CN-). Administer O2
what ￼ Inhibits chain at cytochrome a3, blocks O2 binding by binding to FeII??
CN and CO
what does death from co result from?
interaction with hemoglobin before it can reach the respiratory chain.
sx of CO poisoning
Dizziness, vomiting, increase then decrease of pulse and respiration, collapse, death.
what to tx CO poisoning with
Inhibitors of mitochon-
drial trans- port systems
￼ include (2)
Atractyloside Bongkrekic Acid
Mercurous salts sx
Muscle spasms, depression, death from kidney failure usually within a week of exposure.
Mercurous salts MOA
Inhibits Pi transport by
reaction with essential - SH
what were Mercurous salts formely used for?