Oxidation- reduction proteins are located within the
This respiratory chain serves to break up the 52 kcal/mole available from the flow of ___from NADH to O2 into approximately three equal amounts.
This respiratory chain serves to break up the 52 kcal/mole available from the flow of 2 electrons from NADH to O2
the majority of this energy is used to
The rate of respiration is controlled by the availability of ___
Advantages of a membrane-bound respiratory chain chain
(1) Kinetics: Not limited by the rate of diffusion; no mobile carrier needed.
(2) Stability of intermediates: reduced fuel will be converted to energy stored in an electrochemical gradient. For a gradient you need two compartments. The membrane provides such a boundary.
Flavins have a ___ addition
NADH dehydrogenase contains tightly bound
Succ. Dehyd. contains covalently bound ___
Iron-Sulfur Centers: Accept e-1s from
Flavins and Q
iron sulfate centers may have ___ irons per
Iron-Sulfur Centers have how many electron donor/acceptors?
They may have 2-4 irons per
center, but they are one-electron donor/acceptors.
Acidification of iron sulfar centers leads to →
Ubiquinone: ___-electron donor/acceptor
ubiquinone Functions as an electron ___.
Ubiquinone has ___ additon
Hemes: ___-electron donor/acceptors
The heme is covalently attached to two ____ side chains in cytochromes c and c1.
The iron atom of the heme group in cytochrome c coordinates to a
methionine and a histidine side chain in addition to the 4 porphyrin-ring nitrogens.
Copper Centers: one-electron donor/acceptors in
Copper center A contains ___ Cu
what forms the forms the O2 binding site at the end of the Respiratory Chain?
1. Copper center B
2. the heme iron of Cyt a3
in cytochrome oxidase
what is in cytosohome oxidase?
CuA, CuB, Cyt a, Cyt a3
path of electron flow in cytochrome oxidase?
to CuA -> cytocrhome a -> cytochrome 3 -> cuB
The participation of two copper centers and two heme irons in cytochrome oxidase may be required in order to (2)
1. rapidly deliver 4e- to O2
2. avoid production of H2O2 and superoxides.
For efficient flow, components should be arranged in order of ___
INCREASING ELECTRON AFFINITY
order of the components of the respiratory chain?
Nad -> Q -> b -> C -> a
___ contains three catalytic sites for ATP synthesis
____ is a hydrophobic complex that transverses the membrane and carries protons from one site to the other.
the endergonic synthesis of ATP is obligatorily coupled to the ___
exergonic redox reactions
the reverse is also true