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Flashcards in Attitudes Deck (53)
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1

are self report measures implicit or explicit?

explicit

2

what are some explicit self report measures?

interviews
focus groups
attitude scales (Likert, semantic)

3

ppts rate the attitude objective according to pairs of opposing evaluative words on a 7 point scale (good vs. bad) what type of attitude scale?

semantic differentials

4

ppts rate agreement with a series of positive/negative statements from strongly agree to disagree on a 7 point scale. what type of attitude scale?

likert scale

5

are covert measures implicit or explicit?

implicit

6

what are the 2 types of covert measures?

behavioural and affective
(behavioural = based on behavioural observation)

7

what test is associated with affective measures?

Implicit Association Test (IAT)

8

describe the response results from the IAT

faster to clarify things that are related vs. unrelated in memory and faster response to attitude object with + vs. - words

9

are physiological measures implicit or explicit?

implicit

10

give some examples of physiological measures to test attitudes?

pupillary response
facial EMG (electrodes measure facial muscle activity)

11

activation of zygomatic major facial muscle measures?

smiling

12

activation of currugator supercilli muscle measures?

frowning

13

what are the behavioural approaches to how attitudes are formed?

1. mere exposure
2. classical conditioning
3. evaluative conditioning
4. instrumental conditioning

14

tendency to develop more positive feelings towards more familiar objects (more exposure = more liking) = what behavioural approach?

mere exposure effect (Zajonc, 1968)

15

ppts exposed to banner ads at the top of a web article rated their reaction to banner as more ______ when they saw it ___ times vs. ___ times vs. ___ times

positive, 20, 5, 0
(Fang, singh & Ahluwalia)

16

what were the results from Moreland & beach's interpersonal attraction mere exposure effect study?

students rated women who had attended their class as more attractive when the women had attended 15 vs. 10 vs. 5 classes

17

pairing a new neutral stimulus with an already positive thing = what attitude?

+ attitude

18

pairing a new neutral stimulus with an already negative thing = what attitude?

- attitude

19

what were the results from Biegler and Vargas (2016) study on evaluative conditioning?

ppts rated a fake anti flu drug as more effective, safe and beneficial when paired with + vs. - images

20

what were Hollands et al (2011) study on evaluative conditioning?

ppts showed more negative implicit attitudes to energy dense foods after images of this snack were paired with images of negative health consequences

21

what is the cognitive approach to attitudes?

self perception

22

we form attitudes by observing our behaviour and the circumstances in which they occur and make inferences/attributions =

self perception theory

23

facial activity can influence affective responses = what hypothesis?

FFH (facial feedback hypothesis)

24

what were the results from Strack, Martin & Stepper's study on FFH?

ppts that evaluated cartoons while holding a pen in their teeth found them funnier than those who held pen in their lips

25

what were the results from Ito et al (2006) study?

ppts who held a pen in teeth when looking at photos of black males showed significantly less implicit bias on IAT than those who did the same looking at white males

26

Meta analysis (Hoffman et al) indicated a correlation between IAT (implicit) and explicit measures of ____

0.24

27

why was Hoffman et al's correlation of 0.24 lower than expected?

due to method variance, very different ways to report attitudes

28

what did Karpinski & Hilton find with whether implicit and explicit measures are related?

no significant correlation between implicit and explicit attitude measures, suggests they reflect separate attitude constructs

29

what did Nosek & Smyth find with whether implicit and explicit measures are related?

used structural modelling to indicate that models representing explicit and implicit attitudes are related but distinct constructs best fit the data, suggests implicit and explicit measures reflect related but separate attitude constructs

30

what did Payne et al find in their study on explicit and implicit measures?

higher correlation between them when extraneous differences in the 2 measures were reduced, suggests measurement variance may be responsible for some of the differences in explicit and implicit measures