Counterfactual thinking Flashcards Preview

PSY2001 > Counterfactual thinking > Flashcards

Flashcards in Counterfactual thinking Deck (58)
Loading flashcards...
1

mental simulations of possible outcomes that did not happen but can be imagined as having occurred =

counterfactual thoughts

2

when do counterfactual thoughts often occur?

when experiencing a negative outcome

3

what do counterfactuals do and why?

mentally stimulate a better alternative situation, because we are dissatisfied with reality

4

thinking about better possible outcomes 'if only' =

upwards counterfactual

5

thinking about the worst possible outcomes 'at least' =

downwards counterfactuals

6

what is the effect of upwards counterfactuals?

1. highlight what could be done differently to achieve desired outcome
2. functional
3. foster behaviour change

7

what is the effect of downwards counterfactuals?

1. provide immediate relief for self-threatening thoughts
2. shift attention to what worse outcome was avoided

8

how do counterfactuals have adaptive functions?

think about better realities so we can try and better ourselves

think about worse realities so we can feel better about ourselves

9

silver medalist made an ______ counterfactual and bronze medalist made a _______ counterfactual

upwards, downwards

10

model that looks at how counterfactuals make us feel =

self motive model of counterfactual thinking (Sanna et al, 2001)

11

upward = self ______ function = increased _____ affect

improvement, negative

12

downward = self _________ function = increased ______ affect

enhancement, positive

13

heightens success-enhancing intentions and behaviours = which counterfactual?

upwards

14

restores positive sense of self in response to negative events = which counterfactual?

downwards

15

which was one of the first models of counterfactual thinking that suggested they have affects on our emotions and behaviours?

self motive model of counterfactual thinking

16

what is the more recent model of counterfactual thinking?

The functional theory of counterfactual thinking (Epstude & Roese, 2008)

17

if the primary function of counterfactuals is problem solving then counterfactual thinking should be activated by _______

problems (+ should have the effect go evoking behaviours to correct those problems)

18

which model assumes that successful behaviour regulation is the only 'functional' outcome of counterfactual thinking?

the functional theory of counterfactual thinking

19

upwards counterfactuals are only considered functional when?

there is a likelihood that there will be an opportunity to change future behaviour

the behaviour targeted and changed is under the person's control

20

when is a counterfactual thought uncontrollable?

when its what other people do that you can't control or change in the future

21

uncontrollable =

dysfunctional

22

controllable =

functional

23

pathway that focuses on the specific thing in the circumstance so you change the specific behaviour to get the specific outcome next time =

content specific pathway

24

the content specific pathway helps you form ______

intentions (highlights the link between actions and outcomes)

25

does Gollwitzer say that specific intentions or more general behavioural intentions are easier to implement?

specific intentions

26

what are the 4 components of the content specific pathway?

problem > upward counterfactual > intention > behaviour

27

pathway where making a counterfactual in a specific situation can have benefits in other situations that are not related to the one you are in =

content neutral pathway

28

the content neutral pathway has a more _____ effect on behaviour outcomes

general

29

mindset to make a particular type of counterfactual to help solve a problem in the future =

counterfactual mindsets

30

counterfactuals involve a ______ between a factual and hypothetical outcome similar to social comparisons

comparison