Flashcards in Monitoring goal process (bridging the I-B gap) Deck (33)
involves periodically noting qualities of the target behaviour and outcome and comparing these perceptions with the desired state (our intentions) =
monitoring goal process
give an example of monitoring goal process
monitoring how much we eat by how much weight we've lost and comparing this to how much weight we want to lose
describe Polivy et al's "what the hell" effect
idea that one small slip of a goal causes people think "what the hell| because they've not kept up with their goal and give up instantly and to the extreme
what did the sweet wrapper study find?
all ppts had equal intentions to lose weight > half left wrappers on table and half placed wrappers in bin full of sweet wrappers. those that monitored how many sweets they had eaten because the wrappers were on the table ATE LESS SWEETS (this is because they could monitor their behaviour)
what were the results from DeBruin et al (2012) study on intentions to exercise?
large correlation (.59) found between intentions and self regulatory processes
what are 2 processes found to bridge the gap between intentions and behaviour?
1. monitoring goal process
2. responding to discrepancies
is monitoring one of the processes by which intentions are translated into action?
yes (de bruin et al)
DeBruin et al also measured behaviour. they found that intentions to exercise twice a week were good predictors of behaviour - explaining __-__% of the variance and self regulatory processes explained an extra __% of the variance
what is the limitation of Debruin et al's studies?
correlational studies mean no causation can be inferred > we need to conduct experimental studies
what did Harkin, Webb et al's meta-analysis of experimental studies find?
before intervention, ppts didn't monitor their health behaviours but after there was a big increase in the frequency of monitoring, effect size = 1.98. this was shown to have an effect on behaviour change d=0.4 (small to medium effect size)
what 2 things does monitoring process help people to do?
1. identify discrepancies (difference from where you are now to where you want to be and how to get there)
2. decide how to allocate effort, initiate restraint and corrective action
why did the interventions have such a large effect on frequency people monitor goal process?
people don't typically keep track of their progress (ignore/bury head in sand)
Shankar et al (2007) found that people with diabetes are ______ motivated to monitor blood glucose
what were the results from Evans et al study looking at 807 patients with type 1 diabetes?
16% didn't redeem any prescriptions for monitoring strips, only 20% redeemed prescriptions for enough strips to test daily
motivated avoidance/rejection of info about goal process, idea of intentionally avoiding ways that would help them monitor their goal process (bury head in the sand) =
the ostrich problem
if the goal is to lose weight what is an active monitoring strategy? what is a passive monitoring strategy?
active = weight loss by stepping on scales and looking at info
passive = notice that you don't fit your clothes, someone comments on your weight loss
goal outcomes can be monitored ______ or ______
goal process can be monitored by monitoring _______
if the goal is to lose weight what monitoring behaviours can be done?
note number of calories, amount of exercise in a diary (active)
remember how tired you feel after you've exercised (passive)
a meta-analysis looked at ppts either monitoring their behaviours or outcomes. what were the results?
found it made no difference whether ppts monitored the behaviour or outcome so can do either to have an effect on goal achievement
monitoring behaviour had a big effect on what?
big effect on behaviour outcomes but no effect on the outcome
monitoring outcomes has a big effect on what?
big effect on outcome but small effect on behaviour
what might help explain these findings?
a goal systems perspective
how are reference values used to monitor goal process?
can either monitor process in relation to desired future target or in relation to the past (can also monitor progress in relation to other people) = reference values
does it matter whether you compare to the future to past?
no, both were found to be equally effective
what studies were needed to be explored more as there were only 2 studies?
the effect of monitoring process when comparing to other people
monitoring can be recorded ______ or not
was monitoring that was recorded found to be more or less effective than when it wasn't recorded?
more effective when it was recorded (D+ = 0.43) compared to when it wasn't recorded (D+ = 0.29)
is there a difference in effect on monitoring processes when it is publicly reported compared to privately recorded?
yes publicly reporting process shows a substantial effect on goal achievement. links to the ostrich effect (can't ignore info if you are reporting it to someone or writing it down)