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Flashcards in Personality 2/3 Deck (63)
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1

what factors may contribute to how personality develops?

1. early childhood influences
2. evolutionary pressures
3. genetics
4. brain functioning
5. brain structure

2

how do we measure trait procrastination?

GPS-20 scale

3

what determines whether someone is prone to procrastination?

developmental influences (parenting style), genetic/evolutionary/brain structure perspectives (self control)

4

why might children who have overly critical demanding parents procrastinate?

learn to avoid tasks rather than risking failure so they aren't evaluated on it

5

what did Pschyl et al (2002) hypothesise?

that parenting style would be related to self concept which would be related to a tendency to procrastinate

6

what did Psychyl et al explore?

gender differences in parents

7

low self concept =

high procrastination

8

responsive + demanding = _______, unresponsive + demanding = _______

authoritative, authoritarian

9

responsive + undemanding = ________, unresponsive + undemanding = ________

indulgent, neglectful

10

what type of study was Psychyl et al's?

cross sectional study

11

did authoritative parenting cause procrastination in both males and females?

no > negative correlation. females = -0.52 for mothers and -0.38 for fathers > less of a tendency to procrastinate than authoritarian parents

12

what were the results for daughters in Psychyl et al's study?

mothers parenting style predicted self worth which predicted procrastination, fathers parenting style had a DIRECT effect on procrastination even after controlling for self worth

13

what were the results for sons in Psychyl et al's study?

no significant relationship between parenting styles, self concept and procrastination. may not effect boys in the same way

14

unobservable inherited genetic potential =

genotype

15

observable behavioural expression of the genotype in the environment =

phenotype

16

proportion of phenotypic variance in a sample explained by genetic factors =

heritability

17

how is the role of genetic vs. environmental influences assessed?

using twin studies (MZ and DZ twins) to compare concordance rates

18

the extent to which twins express the same trait =

concordance rate

19

method that determines the degree of shared characteristics between adopted children and their biological vs. adoptive parents =

adoptee method

20

implicit assumption that MZ and DZ twins are treated equally by others =

equal environment assumption

21

why is it important in behavioural genetic studies to determine the role of shared vs. non shared environments?

they give good evidence of where personality traits come from

22

what is personality known to be linked to?

impulsivity

23

describe the evolutionary account of how procrastination has evolved because it had evolutionary value

in early times, thinking about the future wasn't advantageous and if plans/goals were set they would be put off (procrastinated) in the moment to survive, forage for food and act impulsively in dangerous environments. This lead to survival > pass on genes of impulsivity and procrastination

24

account that suggest procrastination arose as a by-product of impulsivity =

evolutionary account

25

if procrastination is a by-product of impulsivity then these 2 traits should be ______ and share some ______ _____ related to goal management

heritable, genetic variation

26

Gustavson et al (2014) conducted a behavioural genetics analysis of 347 MZ twins and 166 DZ twins. what were the findings?

procrastination was distinguishable from impulsivity at the phenotypic level (behaviour) not genotypic level. Shared genetic variation was explained by variations in goal management abilities

27

__% of procrastination can be found to be heritable (Gustavson et al, 2014)

46%

28

impulsivity was __% heritable (Gustavson et al, 2014)

49%

29

is is definite that procrastination is a by-product of impulsivity?

maybe both show + correlations because procrastination may lead to impulsive responding after the long delay

30

poor goal management is linked to poor _______ which is linked to poor _______ so this is linked to __________

self control, executive functions, procrastination