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Flashcards in Personality 1 Deck (49)
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1

what are some characteristics of personality?

1. stable individual differences
2. present early in life
3. relatively consistent across time and place
4. distinguish the behaviour/thoughts/feelings of an individual

2

how are personality differences expressed in people?

through emotions, behaviours, cognitions, motivations, social tendencies

3

a stable aspect of personality that is inferred from behaviour, dimension to describe people according to the degree they manifest a particular characteristic =

trait

4

traits assume characteristics are?

relatively stable over time and across situations

5

how are traits considered continuous?

people can have more or less of a trait by demonstrating behaviour more frequently, with more intensity, across wider range of situations

6

what are the big 5 higher order personality traits?

1. openness
2. conscientiousness
3.extroversion
4. agreeableness
5. neuroticism

7

what are the HEXACO 6 higher order traits?

1. honesty/humility
2. emotionality
3. extraversion
4. agreeableness
5. conscientiousness
6. openness

8

a profile of different combined traits =

types

9

what are lower order traits derived from?

higher order traits

10

lower order traits have ______ or ______ relationships with different higher order traits

positive, negative

11

Big 5 factors provide ____ descriptions of human nature and have ______ bandwidth than narrower lower order traits

broad, greater

12

what are the facets of higher order traits?

lower order traits (different components)

13

what can higher order traits be used for to predict?

a wide range of consequential outcomes

14

lower level traits give a _______ view and bandwidth the higher order traits

narrower

15

why are narrow, lower order traits important for describing a narrower range of behaviour?

provide more specific and precise info about an individuals personality than broader higher order traits (MORE PREDICTIVE POWER AND PRECISION)

16

why might the interpretation of a correlation between a narrower trait and outcome be be easier than for a broad trait?

narrower traits are linked to more specific ways of thinking/feeling/behaving

17

conscientiousness (higher) might be better at explaining _____ a person is doing but optimism (lower) might be better at explaining ____

what, how

18

common self regulation problem, delay in start/completion of important tasks despite recognition of consequences of delay =

dispositional procrastination

19

trait procrastination is a lower order trait associated with?

high impulsivity
low conscientiousness
high neuroticism
low self efficacy

20

what traits were thought to be predictors of hypertension and CVD in the study?

conscientiousness (higher)
agreeableness (higher)
procrastination (lower)

21

prior to entering procrastination in the model, what trait was thought to be a significant predictor of HT/CVD?

low conscientiousness

22

which trait was found to be the only predictor of HT/CVD and outperformed the other higher order traits?

procrastination

23

risk expressed as a function of 1 point on the scale =

odds ratio

24

for every 1 point increase, risk for HT/CVD increased by __% for procrastination

63

25

what are 2 key predictors of developing HT?CVD?

poor health behaviours
stress

26

which out of the 6 facets of conscientiousness (competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self discipline, deliberation) contributes to poor health behaviours?

self discipline (low)

27

are the 6 facets of conscientiousness collectively strong predictors of the 2 key factors that predict HT/CVD (poor health behaviours and stress)?

no, only self discipline

28

what has procrastination shown to contribute to in many studies?

poor health behaviours and high stress (even though lower order trait gives more explanation for risk of HT/CVD diseases)

29

higher order = more ______, lower order = more _____ and better _______

bandwidth, precision, predictor

30

who created the dark triad?

Paulhus & Williams, 2002