Flashcards in Personality 1 Deck (49)
what are some characteristics of personality?
1. stable individual differences
2. present early in life
3. relatively consistent across time and place
4. distinguish the behaviour/thoughts/feelings of an individual
how are personality differences expressed in people?
through emotions, behaviours, cognitions, motivations, social tendencies
a stable aspect of personality that is inferred from behaviour, dimension to describe people according to the degree they manifest a particular characteristic =
traits assume characteristics are?
relatively stable over time and across situations
how are traits considered continuous?
people can have more or less of a trait by demonstrating behaviour more frequently, with more intensity, across wider range of situations
what are the big 5 higher order personality traits?
what are the HEXACO 6 higher order traits?
a profile of different combined traits =
what are lower order traits derived from?
higher order traits
lower order traits have ______ or ______ relationships with different higher order traits
Big 5 factors provide ____ descriptions of human nature and have ______ bandwidth than narrower lower order traits
what are the facets of higher order traits?
lower order traits (different components)
what can higher order traits be used for to predict?
a wide range of consequential outcomes
lower level traits give a _______ view and bandwidth the higher order traits
why are narrow, lower order traits important for describing a narrower range of behaviour?
provide more specific and precise info about an individuals personality than broader higher order traits (MORE PREDICTIVE POWER AND PRECISION)
why might the interpretation of a correlation between a narrower trait and outcome be be easier than for a broad trait?
narrower traits are linked to more specific ways of thinking/feeling/behaving
conscientiousness (higher) might be better at explaining _____ a person is doing but optimism (lower) might be better at explaining ____
common self regulation problem, delay in start/completion of important tasks despite recognition of consequences of delay =
trait procrastination is a lower order trait associated with?
low self efficacy
what traits were thought to be predictors of hypertension and CVD in the study?
prior to entering procrastination in the model, what trait was thought to be a significant predictor of HT/CVD?
which trait was found to be the only predictor of HT/CVD and outperformed the other higher order traits?
risk expressed as a function of 1 point on the scale =
for every 1 point increase, risk for HT/CVD increased by __% for procrastination
what are 2 key predictors of developing HT?CVD?
poor health behaviours
which out of the 6 facets of conscientiousness (competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self discipline, deliberation) contributes to poor health behaviours?
self discipline (low)
are the 6 facets of conscientiousness collectively strong predictors of the 2 key factors that predict HT/CVD (poor health behaviours and stress)?
no, only self discipline
what has procrastination shown to contribute to in many studies?
poor health behaviours and high stress (even though lower order trait gives more explanation for risk of HT/CVD diseases)
higher order = more ______, lower order = more _____ and better _______
bandwidth, precision, predictor