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Flashcards in Autism Deck (34):
1

First documented. “Autism” is used to describe those who cannot relate to others 

1940

2

A spectrum from Asperger → PDD → Autism is outlined in the DSM – IV 

1990s

3

  • Impaired development of social interaction and communication:
    • Inability to initiate or sustain conversation, lack of spoken language
    • Repetitive speech/echolalia
    • Absence of pretend or spontaneous play
  • Markedly restricted repertoire of interests and activities
  • Symptoms before 3
     

Autistic Disorder

4

From DSM IV: “Neurodevelopmental disorder in which persons present with a range of impairments in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as restrictions in behaviors and interests”

Autism Speectrum Disorder

5

Screening tools for Autism Spectrum Disorder:

  • ADOS: Autism Disorder Observation Scale 
  • M-CHAT: Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers
  • STAT: Screening Tool for Autism in Toddlers and Young Children
     

6

  • Delays in social interaction
  • Repetitive behaviors, interests or activities
  • No delays in language, speech, cognition or
    curiosity 

Asperger Syndrome

(DSM IV)

7

  • Genetic
  • Females with typical development
  • Brain growth decelerates, skills lost starting around 5 months
  • Stereotypical arm movements
     

Rhett Disorder
 

8

  • Genetic
  • Males
  • Presentation very similar to ASD 

Fragile X Syndrome
 

9

  • Typical development
  • Sudden loss of language, bowel and bladder control after 2 years or older

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
 

10

In the DSM V, Autism Spectrum Disorder includes which three disorders?

  • Autism Disorder
  • Asperger’s Syndrome
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
     

11

Severe deficits in verbal and nonverbal social communication skills cause severe impairments in functioning, very limited initiation of social interactions, and minimal response to social overtures from others
 

ASD Level 3: Requires Very Substantial Support
 

12

Marked deficits in verbal and nonverbal social communication skills; social impairments apparent even with supports in place; limited initiation of social interactions; and reduced or  abnormal responses to social overtures from others.
 

ASD  Level 2: Requires Substantial Support

13

Without supports in place, deficits in social communication cause noticeable impairments. Difficulty initiating social interactions, and clear examples of atypical or unsuccessful response to social overtures of others. May appear to have decreased interest in social interactions.
 

 Level 1: Requires Support
 

14

ASD parent parents often notice these signs within the first year:

  • Vision and hearing
  • Social and communication
  • Fine motor
     

15

ASD, potential risk factors:
 

  • Weak link to genetic syndromes (10%)
  • Identical twins and siblings
  • 46% of children with ASD have above average intellectual ability
  • Children born to older parents have a higher risk of being diagnosed with ASD 2
  • Exposure to prescription medications
     

16

_______% of children with ASD have above average intellectual ability

46%

17

ASD, POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS: VACCINATIONS
 

NO CONNECTION

  • Andrew Wakefield, primary investigator, lost medical license and article retracted
  • Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in
    children
     

18

Currently ____ in ______ chance of having ASD, up significantly from 1 in 166 in 2000
 

1 in 68

 

19

ASD, higher incidence in boys or girls

  • 1 in 42 for boys 1
  • 1 in 189 for girls 1 

20

ASD Neuropathology:

  • Typical head circumference at birth, increases in the first 2 years
  • Overconnection of “short range” neurons, underconnection of “long range”
  •  Impaired Mirror Neurons
     

21

in ASD, head circumference overgrowth occurs in

frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala 

22

ASD, attention issues:

  • Preoccupiations
  • Difficulty shifting focus
  • Lack of or delayed response to name 

23

“hallmark” of ASD diagnosis 

Communication and sensory impairments

24

Motor disorders in ASD:

  • Stereotypical motor behavior (repetitive)
  • Gait may appear “ataxic” (toe walking)
  • Praxis and imitation
  • Hypotonia in the trunk
     

25

STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENTS for ASD:
 

  • Difficult to complete and interpret
  • Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC)
     

26

Collaboration in ASD:

  1. Psyhcologists and Special Educators: Behavioral Plan
  2. Speech & Language Pathologists: Communication Strategies
  3. Occupational Therapists: Sensory needs

27

Applied Behavioral Analysis (Behavioral therapy): 

therapy for children with ASD each skill is broken down into components parts:

  1. Instructions: clear and concise
  2. Prompt: verbal or physical
  3. Opportunity for response, if incorrect: start a new trial.
  4. immediate feedback

(carry over at home is needed)

28

DEVELOPMENTAL INDIVUDIAL DIFFERENCE RELATIONSHIP-BASED MODEL (“FLOOR TIME”):
 

  • Adults following the child's lead.
  • Child feels “Warmth” and “Connectedness,” feels understood
     

29

Q image thumb

PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (PECS)
 

30

PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (PECS):
 

  • Child exchanges picture for desired object 

31

Push-in to facilitate carryover at:
 

Treating at the: 

  • Classroom
  • Field trips
  • Playground time
     

32

PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION:
 

  • Apraxia/Motor planning
  • Dynamic balance
  • Safety awareness
  • Facilitate carry over
     

33

DIETARY RESTRICTIONS - DEFEAT AUTISM NOW (DAN):
 

  • Gluten and dairy free diet
  • Nutritional Supplements
  • “Hidden” food allergy testing
  • Detoxification of heavy metals
  • No scholarly evidence to support this program
     

34

TIPS FOR ASD INTERVENTION
 

  • Consistent treatment space
  • Limit toys/materials in the treatment area
  • Make sure sensory needs are met
  • Incorporate communication system and behavioral approach used in classroom and home
  • Use a schedule
  • Stick to a routine
  • Prepare for transitions
  • Ensure the child is attending to you before communicating
  • Allow the child to take part in session planning
  • Structured breaks and rewards
  • Encourage generalization to classroom and home