Pediatric Orthopedic Conditions Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics > Pediatric Orthopedic Conditions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatric Orthopedic Conditions Deck (50):
1

When the head of femur is directed anteriorly

 

anteversion

in-toeing

2

When the head of femur is directed posteriorly

retroversion

out-toeing

3

negative foot angle is associated with wich hip angle torsion

in-toeing associated with anterversion

4

positive foot angle is associated with wich hip angle torsion

out-toeing (+) with retroversion

5

what is the normal foot pregression angle?

Q image thumb

-3 to +20

6

name angle

Q image thumb

Foot Progression Angle

7

The foot progression angle includes wich other torsional segments?

torsion of the hip, tibia, and forefoot

8

hip torsion is the relationship between

femoral neck and shaft of femur

9

typical progression of hip rotation

  1. Infants have anteversion + ER contractures
  2. Resolve by 5-6 yr becomes more apparent

10

Thigh Foot Axis is a measure of....

tibial torsion

A image thumb
11

typical progression of Thigh Foot Axis

  1. Infants: IR -30 to -20
  2. Spontaneous de-rotation with growth and walking

12

Treatment of Thigh Foot Axis (tibial torsion) required if natural resolution 
does not happen

 

  • Friedman Counter Strap
  • Derotation strap
  • Dennis Browne bar (picture)

A image thumb
13

Q image thumb

Metatarsus (forefoot) Adductus

14

Most common positional deformity in infants:

Metatarsus (forefoot) Adductus

A image thumb
15

when the foreffot is curved laterally is called?

Q image thumb

Calcaneovalgus

 

16

Treatment of calcaneovalgus and matatarsus (forefoot) adductus

  • matatarsus (forefoot) adductus: corrective shoes, joint manipulation, serial casting
  • calcaneovalgus: none, resolves naturally

17

progression of knee alignment

  • Newborn: peak varum
  • 1-2 yr: straight
  • 2-4 yr: peak valgum
  • 4-16 yr: approaching sex specific norm

A image thumb
18

the 2 lower extremity rotational profiles are:

  • In-toeing: femoral anteversion, tibial internal torsion, metatarsus adductus.
  • Out-toeing: contracture of hip external rotators, tibial external torsion, calcaneovalgus.

19

General “looseness” or “instability” of the hip joint 

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

20

name sign

Q image thumb

Galeazzi Sign

seen in developmental dysplasia

21

Barlow and Ortolani test for developmental dysplasia:

  • Barlow: will dislocate the hip (hip started reduced)
  • Ortolani: will reduce the hip (hips started dislocated) 

A image thumb
22

what is the main intervention for developmental dysplasia for children under 6 mo

Pavlick Harness

 

A image thumb
23

what is the main intervention for developmental dysplasia for children 6-12 mo

closed reduction and abduction orthosis

24

what is the main intervention for developmental dysplasia for children over 12 mo

surgery

25

Avascular necrosis of the ossific nucleus of the femoral head

Q image thumb

Legg Calve Perthes Disease (LCPD)

cause not known

 

26

treatment of Legg Calve Perthes Disease 

  • usually resolve spontaneously 
  • Wide variety of treatment
  • Scotish wide brace (picture)
  • derotational osteonomy 

A image thumb
27

usual population of Legg Calve Perthes disease

  • active boys between 5-10 y/o
  • with learning disabilities
  • 2nd hand smoke at home

28

Q image thumb

Slipped Capital Femoral Ephiphysis (SCFE)

 

29

casues of Slipped Capital Femoral Ephiphysis (SCFE)

  • significant trauma
  • chronic slip (obesity)

30

treatment for Slipped Capital Femoral Ephiphysis (SCFE)    

pinning surgery

31

presentation of Slipped Capital Femoral Ephiphysis (SCFE)    

  • hip ER
  • hips moves passivelly into ER with hip FLX
  • 50% cases are bilateral

32

Q image thumb

Blount's Disease (infantile tibia vara)

33

intervention for Blount's Disease (infantile tibia vara)

  • KAFO 23h per day
  • Sx

A image thumb
34

what lenght difference is considered the normal range in leg lenght discrepancies? 

a discrepancy of less than 2.5 cm

35

impairment in leg length discrepancies include

  • pelvic obliquity, spinal alignment
  • increase energy expenditure

36

leg lenght measurement

  • ASIS to lateral malleolous
  • Umbillicus to heel pad

37

treatment of leg lenght discrepancies

  • shoe lift
  • or surgery

38

Q image thumb

Club Foot, Talipes Equinovarus

39

Q image thumb

Cobb  angle

40

Cobb angle > 10 =

scoliosis diagnosis

 

41

structural scoliosis

  • vertabrae rotate towards convex side
  • cannot be corrected

42

non structural scoliosis

  • usually non  progressive
  • corrects with side bend towards convex side

43

in scoliosis, the direction of the curve is named after the

convex side

44

types of scoliosis

  1. Congenital: anomalous vertebral development, may not progress
  2. Neuromuscular: C types curves, SCI, may progress
  3. Idiopathic: infantile, juvenile, adolescent

45

80% of all idiopathic scoliosis cases are...

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS)

more in females

 

46

progression of scoliosis is defined as

a cobb angle change of >5 deg on two consecutive exams

47

scoliosis, non-surgical treatment in angles of 

<40

48

the main goal of surgical intervention for scoliosis

to halt the progression 

49

congenital joint contractures in two or more areas of the body, genrally not genetically based 

Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita (AMC)

 

50

a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. It results in bones that break easily.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

A image thumb