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Flashcards in Development Deck (48):
1

Motor Development depends upon:

  • Genetics

  • Child individual experiences

  • Environmental experiences

  • Maturation of the CNS*

2

Term babies are born between 

38 and 42 weeks of gestation 

3

Pre-term babies are born before ...

38 weeks, especially very early and low birth weight babies require the care of a physical therapist

4

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5

Difference between delayed and atypical development:

  • Delayed: motor and other skills are developing late but in an appropriate manner.
  • Atypical: child demonstrates motor patterns associated with a specific disorder usually neuromuscular or musculoskeletal = Abnormal muscle tone (low / high / mixed) Cerebral Palsy, club foot etc.

6

Maturationist theory of motor development:

  • development is correlated to changes in the CNS as it develops.
    • Not experience.

7

Gesell: 

 

  • Maturationist theory
  • Motor development allows functional behavior

8

McGraw: 

  • Maturationist  theory
  • highly detailed descriptions of movement sequences, interested in relationship of structure to function

9

Thelen, Lochman and Horak, Shumway-Cooke

  • Applied Dynamic Systems Theory to development
  • No one system is responsible or the director of development; it is a confluence of many factors including:
    • Genetics, opportunity, cognitive ability, level of stimulation, motivation, environment.

10

Term “developmental biodynamics” used to explain....

  • the organization of motor behavior based on the interaction between perception, action, body morphology and task.
  • Dynamic Systems Theory
  • Thelen, Lochman and Horak, Shumway-Cooke

11

Gibson:

  • Theory of affordances

Ecological Theory

12

The period from conception to birth:

Prenatal period

13

The period 1 to 2 weeks of gestation  is called?

Germinal period

14

2 to 8 weeks of gestation:

Embryonic period

(most susceptible to environmental disruptions)

15

9 - 38 weeks of gestation is called?

Fetal period

16

During this time, the embryo is most susceptible to environmental disruptions as moms many not be aware of the pregnancy:

 

  • Embryonic period, 0-8 weeks of gestation.
  • Early in the 1st few weeks of life, development of the embryo  is rapid. There is differentiation of the cells of the blastocyst into the germinal layers that will develop into the different tissues of the body.

17

Ectoderm forms...

Forms skin, hair, nails, teeth and nerves

 

18

Mesoderm forms...

muscle, bone, heart, and blood vessels.

19

Endoderm forms...

forms major digestive organs, liveralimentary tract and linings, endocrine glands

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20

This stage begins at 9 weeks of gestation:

fetal stage

21

start to see fetal movements: head movement, hand to face 

  • fetal stage
  • by 10th week

22

Mother will perceive fetal movements at about ....

16-18 weeks of gestation 

23

Third Trimester baby is growing and gaining weight; occupies more of uterine space, this will reinforce development of:

“Physiological Flexion” 

24

 sleep wake cycles are developing at...

26 -28 weeks of gestation

25

Premature infants often require _______ for respiration due to immaturity of the lungs 

Surfactant

26

CNS  mylelinization continues through the ____

 

1st year

27

When learning to walk 12-19 month olds were found to take over ________ steps, walk a
distance of _______ and fall _______ times per hour! 

  • 2000 steps
  • 7 football fields
  • 17 times

28

Movement and balance development follows a sequence relative to the three planes of the body:

 

  1. Sagittal
  2. Frontal
  3. Transverse

29

Development of movement proceeds in a...

 

  • Cephalocaudal or head to tail direction
    • Head control before trunk control
  • Proximally  to distally:
    • Proximal control of shoulder for general reaching before control of grasp
  • General to specific:
    • Raking grasp before pincer grasp

30

Muscle tone development:

Flexor muscles before extensor muscles, as readily seen in the full-term neonate who is born with physiologic flexion.

31

Antigravity control development:

Occurs first in extensor muscles at a particular joint, prior to the development of the antagonist flexor muscles at that joint.

32

Weight bearing development:

Occurs on flexed extremities before weight bearing occurs on extended limbs.

Ex prone on elbows occurs before quadruped.

33

What is the differences between primitive and mature weigh sift movement pattern?

  • Primitive weight shift is characterized by lateral flexion toward the weigh bearing side.
  • Mature weight shift is associated with elongation on the weight bearing side

34

At birth:

  • Physiolical flexion
  • Turns head side to side 
  • Automatic stepping

35

1 MO:

Attempts to lift head in midline

36

2 MO:

  • Abasia
  • Astasia
  • Fencer's posture

37

3 MO:

  • Beginning of midline head control
  • Rolling supine to s/l non-segmentaly 

38

4 MO:

  • Prone on elbows.
  • Hands to midline.

39

5 MO:

  1. Unilateral reaching prone on elbows
  2. Prone on extended arms
  3. Pivot prone posture
  4. Beginning intra-axial rotation
  5. Rolling prone to supine, segmentally
  6. Head lifting in supine
  7. Supine, hands to knees and feet
  8. Supine, hands to feet
  9. Supine, feet to mouth
  10. Propped sitting
  11. Supine bridging

40

6 MO:

  • Rolling supine to prone segmentally.
  • Ring sitting, unsupported, with high guard.
  • Transfering objects hand to hand.

41

8 MO:

  • Independent sitting with secondary curves.
  • Beginning quadruped.
  • Beginning pull to stand.
  • Volitional forearm supination.

42

10 MO:

  • Creeping
  • Plantigrade posture
  • Plantigrade creeping
  • Pulling to standing and lowering self
  • Cruising

43

12 MO:

  • Pulling to standing through half-kneeling.
  • Walking independently.

44

15 MO:

creeping up stairs

Depending on home environment opportunities

45

18 MO:

walking up stairs with help or handrail

46

Atypical motor development is often is related to...

abnormal muscle or postural tone Hypotonia / Hypertonia 

47

Postural and equilibrium reactions develop as the infant or primitive reflex patterns become integrated or fade away. What are the 3 types of postural reactions?

 

  • Righting Rx’s: function to keep the head oriented to the body and to gravity and to keep the eyes level with the horizon
  • Equilibrium reactions: adjust for changes of the body in space, to keep you balanced over a point.
  • Protective Reactions: help to protect ourselves from harm and falls.

48

High or low muscle tone:

  • Low muscle tone result is changes in muscle length, soft tissue and joint structures Which can result in true structural or orthopedic changes.
  • High muscle tone results in decreased muscle memory elongation and limited patterns of movement, muscle length changes.