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Flashcards in autonomic nervous system Stephens Deck (28):

the autonomic nervous system is generally considered what kind of fibers?

GVE motor system
-some GVA fibers may course with its nerves


where are preganglionic sympathetic neurons located for the head and neck

intermediolateral cell column of thoracolumbar segments T1-L2


hypothalamus and preganglionic symp neurons

hypothalamus has descending fibers inside the brainstem and spinal cord that will terminate on preganglionic symp neurons in intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord (T1-T4)


preganglionic sympathetic fibers to the head and neck

preganglionic symp fibers from intermediolateral cell column of T1-T2 spinal cord via ventral root go to white ramus to symp trunk, ascend and terminate on sympathetic ganglia


postganglionic sympathetic fibers to head and neck

preganglionic fibers terminate on the cervical sympahtetic ganglia. then postganlionic neurons from here form nerve plexuses coursing in tunica adventitia of BV (external carotid plexus)
-or join with cervical or cranial nerves
-innervate BVs, SM, and glands of head and neck


ganglion in head and neck

superior cervical (sympathetic outflow to head, especially the orbit)
middle cervical ganglion
inferior cervical ganglion (stellate)
vertebral ganglion


external carotid plexus consits of what

postganglionic sympathetic fibers which course in the tunica adventitia of external carotid and its branches


superior cervical ganglion gets preganglionic fibers from where and sends postgang to where

pregang: T1
postgang: upper cervical C1-C3
-lower cranial nerves, IX-XII, the pahynx, carotid body and sinus, internal carotid nerve


internal carotid nerve

leaves superior cervical ganglion and forms internal carotid polexus


4 major branches from internal carotid plexus

perivascular plexus: course with cerebral BVs

sympathetic branch to ciliary ganglion: passes through ciliary ganglino before terminating as short ciliary nerves to eyeball, postgang symp fibers innerveate dilator puillae and tarsal muscles

deep petrosal nerve: jions greater petrosal n to form vidian n
-post gang symp fibers go to palate, nasal cavity, pharynx, orbit, lacrimal gland

carotico-tympanic nerve
-enters middle ear cavity and forms part of tympanic plexus, exits as lesser petrosal nerve
-post ganglionic fibers to parotid gland


what is the level of the middle cervical ganglion



what is the level of the vertebral ganglion



horner's synderome may be caused by interruption of the cervical symp trunk, transection of spinal cord above the level of ____



signs and symptoms of horner's syndrome

Ptosis of upper lid due to paralysis of tarsal m

Anhidrosis and blusing: vasodilation of skin on face due to loss symp innervation of Bvs

Mitosis or pupillary constriction due to paralysis of dilator pupillae muscle

Enophthalmos: due to paralysis of orbitalis muscle of muller



causes of horner's syndrome

partial or complete transection of cervical spinal cord
surgical or traumatic destruction of cervical symp chain
transient signs and symptoms


preganglionic parasympathetic neurons are found in brainstem and course with cranial nerves:



edinger-westphal nucleus sends what to where
fibers sent next?

preganglinoic fibers to the ciliary ganglion via the occulomotor nerve
-postganglionic fibers to ciliary muscles of lens and sphincter pupillae musles of iris


superior salivatory nucleus sends ____fibers to which ganglion?

pterygopalatine ganglion
submandibular ganglion


superior salivatory nucleus to pterygopalatine ganglion

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to:

pterygopalatine ganglion via the greater petrosal nerve
(off facial nerve) then the vidian nerve
-postganglionic axons innervate lacrimal gland, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, palate and orbit via zygomatic nerve


superior salivatory nucleus to submandibular ganglion

superior salivatory nucleus sends preganglionic fibers to submandibular ganglion via the chorda tympani nerve (branch of facial nerve)
-chorda tympani nerve merges with lingual nerve until reaches ganglion
-postganglionic fibers innervate submandiubular and sublingual salivary glands


indferior salivatory nucleus sends preganglionic ____ to where

preganglionic parasymp to the otic ganglion via the lesser petrosal nerve (branch of glossopharyngeal nerve)
-postganglionic parasympathetic axons from otic ganglion innervate parotid gland via auriculotemporal branches of trigeminal nerve


dorsal motor nucleus X sends what

long, preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to scattered ganglia in pharynx, larynx, thorax, abdomen

-hosrt postganglionic parasymp fibers to adjacetn glands of pharynx, larynx, thorax, abdomen


cervical sympathetic trunk location

posterior to the common carotid artery
anterior to longus colli and capitus muscle
invested in or deep to prevertebral fascia
rostral extent is at level of CV1


location of superior cervical ganglion

posterior to the internal carotid artery at level of CV1-2
-on surface of longus capitus muscle


deep petrosal nerve joins with ___ to form ____
-postgang symp fibers to what

greater, vidian
-palate, nasal cavity, pharynx, orbit, lacrimal gland


carotico-tympanic nerve enters ____ and forms part of ___, exits as ____
-postganglionic symp fibers course through _____,_____,____ and supplies ____

middle ear cavity, tympanic plexus, lesser petrosal nerve
-lesser petrosal nerve, otic ganglion, auriculotemporal nerve to supply parotid


postganglionic sympathetic fibers for submandibular salivary gland

from facial plexus intermediolateral cell column


postganglionic symp fibers for parotid gland

from superior cervical ganglion