Neurotransmitter systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurotransmitter systems Deck (39):
1

dopamine:
-central location
-function
-ionotropic receptors
-metabotropic receptors
-other

central location: basal ganglia
function: motor control, pleasure, consciousness
ionotropic: none
metabotropic: D1,2,3
other: tyrosine derivative

2

norepinephrine
-central location
-function
-ionotropic receptors
-metabortopic receptors
-other

central location: pons/brainstem
function: wakefullness
ionotropic receptors: none
metabotropic receptors: alpha and beta adrenergic
other: tyrosine derivative

3

epineprhine
-only difference from norep

-central location: brainstem

4

serotonin
-central location
-function
-IT recept
-MT receptors
-other

-central location: raphe nuclei
-function: mood, wakefulness
-ITR: 5HT3 (vomiting)
-MTR: multiple 5HT6- mood
-other: trp derivative

5

histamine
-central location
function
ITR
MTR
other

CL: hypothalamus
fnct: waking
ITR: none
MTR: H1 and H2
other: histidine deriv

6

location of acetylcholine producing neurons

midbrain and pons
-striatum: mostly motor control cholen neurons here

7

acetylcholine general functions

consciousness, not awareness
-control of voluntary motion
-initiation of REM sleep

8

what is the protein that moves ach into vesicles

VAchT

9

how is acetylcholine broken down
-location

acetylcholinesterase
-bound to post-synaptic cell membrane

10

acetylcholine receptors: muscarininc
M1-M5
location and G(x)

M1: (neuronal) Gq, increase IP3/DAG, increase calcium
M2: cardiac: Gi, decrease cAMP, increase K+ efflux
M3: smooth m of bronchi, vasculature. Gq
M4: Gi
M5: Gq

11

acetylcholine receptors: nicotinic

5 subunits: a,b,g,d,e
-ionotropic: allow sodium influx, some neuronal forms allow for significant Ca++ influx

12

acetylcholine function

wakefulness

13

what are the inhibitory amino acids

GABA and glycine

14

where are GABA neurons located?

cerebellum, cortex, retina

15

functional role of GABA

-major inhibitory NT in higher CNS
-critical for producing consciousness/awareness
-control of voluntary motion

16

what enzyme is required for the formation of GABA

glutamate decarboxylase

17

how is action of GABA limited

reuptake
catabolism by GABA-transaminase

18

stiff-person syndrome

autoimmune disease, response to gluatamate decarboxylase, so neurons that normally inhibit motion cannot make GABA, person has severe muscle spasms and can lead to tetany

19

GABA(A) receptors

ionotropic
5 subunits
chloride conductance in which hyperpolarizes cell
benzodiazepine site potentiates chloride conductance

20

GABA(B) receptors

Gi and Gq
-decrease adenylyl cyclase and increase K+ efflux
-decrease IP3/DAG and decrease calcium influx
-end result = hyperpolarization

21

glycine receptors

-ionotropic
-pentamer
-a subunit: glycine binding
-b subunit is structural
-chloride channel
-blocked by strychnine

22

function of glycine

almost all inhibition of spinal cord

23

opioid family peptides

-endorphins
-enkephalins
-dynorpins

24

opioids central location

basal ganglia
hypothalamus
parabrachial nuclei and raphe nuclei

25

general functions of opioids

modification of nociceptive inputs
modification of mood/affect

26

proenkephalin subtypes

met-enkephalin
leu-enkephalin

27

opioid peptide transmitters have 4 precursor molecules

-proenkephalins
-POMC: B-endorphins
-Prodynorphin: hydrolyzed--> 3 leu-enkeph
-dynorphins
-orphanin FQ (nociceptin)

28

how is the action of opioids limited

enzymatically, possibly after reuptake
-enkephalinase A and B
-aminopeptidase

29

what receptors do opioids bind to

(mu) receptors

k (kappa) receptors

Delta receptors

30

what effect does binding to (mu) receptors cause

-respiratory depression
-euphoria
-analgesia

31

what effect does binding to kappa recetpors of opioids do

analgesia and dysphoia

32

what effect does binding to delta receptors of opioids do

analgesia

33

indirect effects of mu receptors

increase K efflux and hyperpolarize

34

indirect effects of k and delta recetpors

decarease calcium

35

central location of opioids

hypothalamus/medulla

36

endocannabinoids 2 types

anandamide
2-arachidonylglycerol

-both have arachidoinc acid

37

loaction of endocannabinoids and function

basal ganglia: affect/motor
spinal cord: modulation of nociception

38

CB-1 receptor of ___

Endocannabinoids
-axons and presynaptic terminals of EAA and GABA synapses
-Gi
-reduces NT release
-binds either anandamide or 2-AG well

39

CB-2 receptor

found in brain (microglia)
immune system and gut
anti-inflammatory
in brain, cause macrophages to remove B-amyloid