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Flashcards in ventricular system and blood vessels Deck (52):

the anterior cerebral artery is needed for

sensory and motor to legs


if you block the middle cerebral artery you lose

auditory speech, and sensroy and motor to arms


if you lose the posterior cerebral artery you lose



define somatotopic

some sensory or motor pathways convey their fibers in a highly organized laminated fashion as they ascend or descend to specific regions of cortex or body


what is a homunculus

cartoon representation of exaggereated proporitons of the cortical map


what is a funiculus

general term for large, cord-like bundle of nerve fibers


what is a fasciculus

bundle of nerve fibers which belong to a particular system in the CNS, may be a tract


what is a tract

a fasciculus comprised of nerve fibers that have a comon origin, termination, and function


what is a lemniscus

bundle of crossed, secondary nerve fibers in a conscious sensory pathway (example: pain and temp, proprioception)
-lesion of a lemniscus results in contralateral deficits


what happens when the subarachnoid space is gone

the arachnoid membrane collapses on the membrane of the brain
-see veins at first bc arteries are much deeper


falx herniation

bc the falx only partially separates the cerebral hemispheres, part of the cerebral hemisphere may be pushed to the other side under the free edge


where does the pooling of an epidural hematoma occur

between the endosteum and the dura matter


epidural hematoma clinical presentation

intial unconsciousness followed by rapid recovery
-after a few hours, increase in supratentorial cranial volume causes displacement of the brain tissue
-bleeding expands to epidural space, presses on cerebral hemisphere and herniates cerebrum under falx cerebri and or through the tentorial notch (tentorial or uncal herniation)


subdural hematoma clinical presentation

head trauma ma cause cerebral veins to rupture as they cross subdural space
-same signs and symptoms as epidural hematoma but the temporal onset may be delayed for days or weeks


trauma to the midbrain can cause what

-sharp edge of incisura (free edge of tnentorium) to lacerate or contuse the brainstem
-result can be temporary or permanent coma


dural venous sinuses: straight venous sinus drains directly into ___, drains what

superior sagittal sinus empties directly into ___ in 2/3 of cases and drains what

-which system being comprimised is more dangerous?

straight venous sinus-->left transverse sinus
-drains core of the cerebrum structures

superior sagittal sinus empties into right transverse sinus and drains cortical region of brain

-left side being compromosed can lead to death



increased intracranial pressure applies pressure to small veins on optic nerve, decresed drainage from retina results in edema of retina and swelling of optic disc


subarachnoid hemorrhage?
-all major BVs supplying CNS pass through or course in ___

subarachnoid space
if you rupture one of these vessels = subarachnoid hemorrhage
-indicated by erythrocytes in the CSF
-also area that was suppose to get this blood will be ischemic


external hydrocephalus

accumulation of CSF in subarachnoid space with enlargement of that space by compression of the CNS
-may be supratentorial, infratentorial, or both


supratentorial external hydrocephalus

associated with senile atrophy of cortex, e.g. alzheimer's disease


infratentorial external hydrocephalus

seen in combination with communicating hydrocephalus


internal hydrocephalus

non communicating hydrocephalus bc CSF cannot drain into subarachnoid space
-obstruction in ventricular pathway, everything proximal to obstruction will be enlarged


obstruction of medial foramina in internal hydrocephalus name

arnold chiari malformation


lateral foramina blok in internal hydrocephalus

dandy walker cyst


results of communicating hydrocephalus

often in combo with infratentorial external and internal hydrocephalus
-hypertrophy of the ventricles
-CSF in the infratentorial subarachnoid space


where can CSF not get to in communicating hydrocephalus and what is blocked

narrow space btwn tentorial notch and midbrain is obstructed due to adhesions and firbosis from past inflammation

-cannot get to the cerebrum to be resorbed at arachnoid villi adjacent to and in the superior sagittal sinus


what is the watershed area

overlapping area on the brain that needs arterial supply from more than one source
-no anastomoste


ischemic penumbra, what is it

following focal ischemia, the tissue surrounding core ischemic area is viable
-storke therpay directed at rescuing area by imporviing tissue acidosis and O2 delivaery
-calcium channel and NMDA receptor blocking could treat


what kind of dysfunction occurs with ischemic penumbra

autoregulation dysfunction and edema due to ischemic tissue acidosis, and resultant luxury perfusion of adjacent normal tissue


central canal is what and what condition can be associated

extends from obex of fourth ventricle
-can enlarge and develop a cavity in center of cord = syringomyelia
-bilateral anesthesia of shoulder and upper limbs


what is a communicating hydrocephalus a combination of

external infratentorial and internal hydrocephalus


the penetrating branches of what artery supply the internal capsule and basal ganglia

posterior communicating artery


where is the anterior choroidal artery and what is it involved with

near ICA and posteior communicating junction
-role in parkinsons


which artery has the highest incidence of cerebral aneurysms?

the anterior cerebral artery


where is the ACA and what may it anastomose with?

near olfactory and optic nerve
-may anastomse with posterior cerebral artery via pericallosal artery


the penetrating branch of the ACA is called the ______ and supplies the _____ and ____

recurrent artery of heubner
supplies internal capsule and corpus striatum


occlusions of the ACA may result in

ontralateral paresis and or paraesthesia of leg and foot


which penetrating branch of the MCA is prone to rupture?
it is a _____ striate artery

artery of cerebral hemrrhage
-lateral striate


MCA cortical branches

central artery
frontal branches


thrombosis of central artery would lead to what

contralateral paralysis or paraesthesisa of face and upper 1/2 of body


what artery supplies broca's area

frontal branches
-cortical branch off MCA


what artery is compromised in central cord syndrome

anterior spinal artery


what is central cord syndrome

disruption of blood flow to anterior spinal artery = ischemia of central region of spinal cord
-loss of motor function and sometimes sensation below level of occlusion


the two posterior spinal arteries are branches off ___ or ___

vertebral arteries or PICA


what arteries supply the peripheral margins of the spinal cord

the posteior spinal arteries and the radicular arteries


whatr artery is the major supply to the inferior 2/3 of the spinal cord and contributes to the anterior spinal artery

great anterior artery of adamkiewicz


what may compromise the great anterior artery of adamkiewicz

thoracolumbar fracture or surgical repair of AAA


what does the PICA supply and thrombosis of it results in what

supplies posterior inferior portion of cerebellum, posterolateral aspect of medulla choroid plexus of fourth ventricle
-thrombosis = lateral medullary (wallenberg) syndrome


what are the signs of wallenberg syndrome and what artery involved

PICA and horseness, dysphagia, loss gag
IX and X


cortical area of anterior cerebral artery

paracentral lobule


cortical area of middle cerebral artery

primary motor
primary auditory
primary somesthetic


cerebral venous drainage path

internal cerebral vein and basal vein drain into the great vein of Galen
-Galen drains into straight sinus
-striaght sinus goes into left transverse sinus
-left transverse sinus goes into IJV