Flashcards in Bacteria through Binomes quiz Deck (84):
Prokaryotes that live in some of the most extreme environments on Earth
Same structures since ancient times
what does Archaea mean
what do archaeans tell us about earths early conditions?
thrives in extreme/harsh conditions
thrives in extremely heated environment
(yellowstone national park/deep sea vents)
thrive in salty conditions
(sea water evaporating ponds/salt lake)
examples of oxygen free environments where some Archaeans can live
bottom of lakes/swamps (produce bubbles of swamp gas)
where do less extreme archaeans often live?
diverged from ancient prokaryotic ancestors
bacteria and archaeans
who is more similar to eukaryotes: bacteria or archaeans? why?
they have a cell structure more similar to a eukaryotic cell. similar cell wall. less primitive than bacteria
tiny microbe bacterium that invades the lungs and causes tuberculosis.
bacteria that causes strep throat
Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)
lives in the intestines and releases certain vitamins are important to health
characteristics of a prokaryotic cell
lacks a nucleus and most other organelles
DNA is concentrated in an area called the nucleoid region (not separated by a membrane)
bacteria and archaea
contain nuclei that separates the DNA from the rest of the cell. Like the prokaryotic, many protists and certain fungi are unicellular and microscopic in size. But other protists, most fungi, and all animals and plants are multicellular.
eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus
Animallike protist; is a heterotroph
what do some species of soil bacteria do?
invert nitrogen gas from the atmosphere to nitrogen containing compounds that plants can absorb from the soil. Plants use these nitrogen containing compounds to build proteins.
prokaryotic organisms that differ from Archaeans because of different cell structure and chemical makeup. uses different RNA polymerase, the enzyme that catalyze the synthesis of RNA. lack introns.
differences between bacteria and Archaeans
bacteria polymerases are relatively small and simple, while archaean polymerase is our complex and similar to those of eukaryotes. Intron's, the non-coding regions of genes, and are absent in bacteria. Certain antibiotics kill bacteria but have no effect on archaeans. bacterial cell walls contain a polymer called peptidoglycan (not in eukaryotes or archaeans)
how did biologists identify and distinguish bacteria
three basic shapes of bacteria
cocci, bacilli, spirochetes
cocci (singular coccus)
spherical bacteria (like the one that causes pneumonia)
bacilli (singular bacillus)
rod shapes bacteria (E. coli)
spiral shaped bacteria.
Bacterium that causes syllabus and other that causes Lyme disease
broadest category used to classify lifeforms
function of the cell wall
maintains the cell shape and protects the cell
two types of bacteria cell wall
1.) composed mostly of peptidoglycan
2.) less peptidoglycan & additional additional outer membrane
a substance forming the cell walls of many bacteria, consisting of glycosaminoglycan chains interlinked with short peptides.
test used it to find what kind of cell wall bacteria has
motile prokaryotes that can move toward or away from chemical and physical signals in their environment.
They might, move towards food, light, or oxygen and away from toxic substances
The division of prokaryotic's (how they reproduce)
all genetically identical (clones)
The DNA copies move to opposite ends of the cell as the cell splits in the middle. Binary fission is much simpler than the process of mitosis that occurs and you caryopsis. This is another important difference itching prokaryotic and eukaryotic
in transformation, some bacteria take up pieces of DNA from the environment. Such pieces of DNA might come from nearby bacteria that have died.
two bacterial cells temporarily join and directly transfer genetic material between them. Conjugation usually involves plasmids, separate rings of DNA apart from the cells main chromosome.
transduction involves viruses that in fact bacteria (bacteriophages). These viruses carry genes from one cell and inject them into another.
specialized resting cells that can be made inside of bacteria to help them survive harsh conditions.
mode of nutrition
phrase a mode of nutrition describes how organisms obtain energy and carbon atoms.
obtain carbon atoms from carbon dioxide.
obtain's carbon from existing organic molecules such as those in food
obtain light energy
obtain energy from chemicals
Energy source is sunlight and carbon source is direct CO2
energy source is inorganic chemicals and carbon source is CO2
energy source is sunlight and carbon source is organic compounds
energy source in organic compounds
carbon source is organic compounds
An aerobe that requires oxygen for aerobic respiration.
a microorganism that grows in the presence of air or requires oxygen for growth.
an organism that grows without air, or requires oxygen-free conditions to live.
Group of bacteria that generates oxygen as a waste product of their photosynthesis
The use of organisms to remove pollutants from air, water, and soil
bacteria and other micro organisms that can cause disease
The study of the interactions between lifeforms and their regions
The region of earth where life exists
specific regions of earth identified by the climate and their life forms
seasonal droughts, occasional fires, less water and lower temperatures than savannas
tropical rain forest climate
high temperature heavy rainfall
tropical rainforest vegetation
tropical high temperature. Less rainfall than tropical rain forest
grasslands scattered trees
deciduous forest climate
deciduous forest vegetation
kiniffurnace forest climate
Cold winters. Heavy snowfall. Cone bearing trees
very cold winters
on the most unicellular, most asexual, half consumers half producers
plant like protista
seaweed kelp algae
fungi like protists
Long continuous thread of Fungus cells
reproduction of fungus
asexual. Uses spores
what is the Fungus cell wall made of
where gas exchange occurs on the leaves
the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.
the vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem
each of the branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus.
a branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of species.
branching diagram that represents the proposed phylogeny or evolutionary history of a species or group
a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes.
A climograph is a graphical representation of basic climatic parameters, that is monthly average temperature and precipitation, at a certain location. It is used for a quick-view of the climate of a location.
an organism, esp. a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material for food
The classification which uses shared derived characters to make a cladogram
pCs that have more ancestral characters with respect to the other organisms being compared