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Archaea

Prokaryotes that live in some of the most extreme environments on Earth
Same structures since ancient times

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what does Archaea mean

ancient

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what do archaeans tell us about earths early conditions?

very extreme/harsh

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Extremeophiles

thrives in extreme/harsh conditions
general

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thermophiles

thrives in extremely heated environment
(yellowstone national park/deep sea vents)
more specialized

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Halophiles

thrive in salty conditions
(sea water evaporating ponds/salt lake)

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examples of oxygen free environments where some Archaeans can live

mud
bottom of lakes/swamps (produce bubbles of swamp gas)

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where do less extreme archaeans often live?

cool seawater

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diverged from ancient prokaryotic ancestors

bacteria and archaeans

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who is more similar to eukaryotes: bacteria or archaeans? why?

archaeans
they have a cell structure more similar to a eukaryotic cell. similar cell wall. less primitive than bacteria

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mycobacterium tuberculosis

tiny microbe bacterium that invades the lungs and causes tuberculosis.

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streptococcus pyogenes

bacteria that causes strep throat

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Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)

lives in the intestines and releases certain vitamins are important to health

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characteristics of a prokaryotic cell

mostly unicellular
lacks a nucleus and most other organelles
DNA is concentrated in an area called the nucleoid region (not separated by a membrane)

bacteria and archaea

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eukaryotic cells

contain nuclei that separates the DNA from the rest of the cell. Like the prokaryotic, many protists and certain fungi are unicellular and microscopic in size. But other protists, most fungi, and all animals and plants are multicellular.

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protist

eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus

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protozoan

Animallike protist; is a heterotroph

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what do some species of soil bacteria do?

invert nitrogen gas from the atmosphere to nitrogen containing compounds that plants can absorb from the soil. Plants use these nitrogen containing compounds to build proteins.

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bacteria

prokaryotic organisms that differ from Archaeans because of different cell structure and chemical makeup. uses different RNA polymerase, the enzyme that catalyze the synthesis of RNA. lack introns.

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differences between bacteria and Archaeans

bacteria polymerases are relatively small and simple, while archaean polymerase is our complex and similar to those of eukaryotes. Intron's, the non-coding regions of genes, and are absent in bacteria. Certain antibiotics kill bacteria but have no effect on archaeans. bacterial cell walls contain a polymer called peptidoglycan (not in eukaryotes or archaeans)

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how did biologists identify and distinguish bacteria

cell shape
cell structure
cell motility

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three basic shapes of bacteria

cocci, bacilli, spirochetes

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cocci (singular coccus)

spherical bacteria (like the one that causes pneumonia)

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bacilli (singular bacillus)

rod shapes bacteria (E. coli)

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Spirochetes

spiral shaped bacteria.
Bacterium that causes syllabus and other that causes Lyme disease

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domain

broadest category used to classify lifeforms

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function of the cell wall

maintains the cell shape and protects the cell

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two types of bacteria cell wall

1.) composed mostly of peptidoglycan
2.) less peptidoglycan & additional additional outer membrane

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peptidoglycan

a substance forming the cell walls of many bacteria, consisting of glycosaminoglycan chains interlinked with short peptides.

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Gram staining

test used it to find what kind of cell wall bacteria has

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motile prokaryotes

motile prokaryotes that can move toward or away from chemical and physical signals in their environment.
They might, move towards food, light, or oxygen and away from toxic substances

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binary fission

The division of prokaryotic's (how they reproduce)
all genetically identical (clones)
The DNA copies move to opposite ends of the cell as the cell splits in the middle. Binary fission is much simpler than the process of mitosis that occurs and you caryopsis. This is another important difference itching prokaryotic and eukaryotic

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transformation

in transformation, some bacteria take up pieces of DNA from the environment. Such pieces of DNA might come from nearby bacteria that have died.

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conjugation

two bacterial cells temporarily join and directly transfer genetic material between them. Conjugation usually involves plasmids, separate rings of DNA apart from the cells main chromosome.

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transduction

transduction involves viruses that in fact bacteria (bacteriophages). These viruses carry genes from one cell and inject them into another.

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endospores

specialized resting cells that can be made inside of bacteria to help them survive harsh conditions.

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mode of nutrition

phrase a mode of nutrition describes how organisms obtain energy and carbon atoms.

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autotroph

obtain carbon atoms from carbon dioxide.

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heterotroph

obtain's carbon from existing organic molecules such as those in food

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photo

obtain light energy

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chemo

obtain energy from chemicals

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Photoautotroph (Photosynthesizers)

Energy source is sunlight and carbon source is direct CO2

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chemoautotroph

energy source is inorganic chemicals and carbon source is CO2

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photoheterotroph

energy source is sunlight and carbon source is organic compounds

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chemoheterotrophs

energy source in organic compounds
carbon source is organic compounds

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obligate aerobe

An aerobe that requires oxygen for aerobic respiration.

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aerobe

a microorganism that grows in the presence of air or requires oxygen for growth.

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anaerobe

an organism that grows without air, or requires oxygen-free conditions to live.

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cyanobacteria

Group of bacteria that generates oxygen as a waste product of their photosynthesis

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bioremedation

The use of organisms to remove pollutants from air, water, and soil

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pathogens

bacteria and other micro organisms that can cause disease

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ecology

The study of the interactions between lifeforms and their regions

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biosphere

The region of earth where life exists

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biomes

specific regions of earth identified by the climate and their life forms

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desert climate

Hot, dry

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desert vegetation

cacti, succulents

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grasslands climate

seasonal droughts, occasional fires, less water and lower temperatures than savannas

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tropical rain forest climate

high temperature heavy rainfall

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tropical rainforest vegetation

tall trees

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savanna climate

tropical high temperature. Less rainfall than tropical rain forest

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savanna vegetation

grasslands scattered trees

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deciduous forest climate

warm summers
cold winters
moderate precipitation

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deciduous trees

deciduous forest vegetation

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kiniffurnace forest climate

Cold winters. Heavy snowfall. Cone bearing trees

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arctic tundra

very cold winters
permafrost
high winds
little rainfall

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chapparel

mostly warm
mountainy deserty

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Protista

on the most unicellular, most asexual, half consumers half producers

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plant like protista

seaweed kelp algae

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fungi like protists

slime molds

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fungus food

heterotrophic decomposers

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mycelium

Long continuous thread of Fungus cells

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reproduction of fungus

asexual. Uses spores

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what is the Fungus cell wall made of

chitin

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stomata

where gas exchange occurs on the leaves

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phloem

the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.

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xylem

the vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem

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hyphae

each of the branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus.

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cladogram

a branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of species.

branching diagram that represents the proposed phylogeny or evolutionary history of a species or group

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plasmid

a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes.

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climatograph

A climograph is a graphical representation of basic climatic parameters, that is monthly average temperature and precipitation, at a certain location. It is used for a quick-view of the climate of a location.

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decomposer

an organism, esp. a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material for food

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cladistics

The classification which uses shared derived characters to make a cladogram

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outgroup

pCs that have more ancestral characters with respect to the other organisms being compared

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nodes

and nodes where the branches originate represent a common ancestor