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Flashcards in Chemistry review Deck (101):
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What is an atom?

The smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

1

What are energy levels?

A definite stable energy that a physical system can have; used especially of the state of electrons

2

What is a chemical symbol?

A 1 or 2 letter internationally agreed code for a chemical element

3

What is an ion?

An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons

4

What is radiation?

The emission of energy from isotopes

5

What is a reactant?

Starting material

6

Lewis dot model?

Shows the electrons

7

What is a chemical equation?

A chemical equation is symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the reactant entities are given on the left hand side and the product entities on the right hand side

8

What is an element?

An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom.

9

What is the atomic number?

the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus

10

What is an isotope?

When there is a different amount of neutrons

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What is the atomic mass?

The number below the element symbol. The adverse of all the isotopes.

12

What is a product?

The ending material

13

What is a valence electron

Electrons on the outer most energy level

14

What is an ionic bond?

Bond formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another resulting in op ions, that chemically attract

15

What is CHNoPs?

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfer

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What is the mass number?

Atomic mass with isotopes

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How do you find neutrons?

Mass number - atomic number

18

How do you find protons/electrons?

Atomic number

19

What is the nucleus?

Center of the atom

20

What is a compound?

Two or more chemically combined elements

21

What does radioactive mean?

Gives off radiation

22

What is a chemical reaction?

When the chemical composition is changed

23

What is a trace element?

Element in your body that makes up less than 0.01 percent

24

What is a covalent bond?

Electrons are shared. Two non metals

25

What is a molecule?

The simplest structural unit of a compound

26

What does acid release when dissolved in water?

H+ (hydrogen ions)

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What are some of the properties of acids?

There corrosives, and sour tasting

28

What does a base release when it is dissolved in water?

Hydroxide ion (OH-)

29

HCl ---> h+ + Cl

Stomach acid

30

What are some examples of bases

Battery acid, vinegar

31

What is neutralization?

The process when an acid in a base our next resulting in water

32

What is a buffer?

Substance that causes a solution to resist change in pH

33

It is an example of a buffer?

Blood

34

Why is carbon used so much?

Makes covalent bonds, and bonds four times

35

What is organic chemistry?

The study of carbon containing compounds

36

What is polyethylene?

Plastic

37

Polystyrene?

Styrofoam

38

What do structural formulas show

How molecules Adams are arranged

39

What is a polymer?

A long chain of repeating similar units

40

What is a monomer?

A small compound that can be joined with other small compounds

41

What does carboxylic acid look like

C--COOH

42

The word carb is short for what?

Carbohydrates

43

Some examples of carbs a?

Sports drinks, pasta, potatoes, rice

44

C6h12O6

Sugar

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What are simple sugars called

Monosaccharides, or sugar monomer

46

What is the job of a sugar molecule and how are they like a gasoline

Angel supply for cellular work, like gas for car

47

What is the function of a carbohydrate

Bonds break and give us energy

48

What is a call into sugars are tied together?

Disaccharide

49

The best example of double sugar is

Sucrose

50

What are long chains of sugar monomers

Polysaccharides

51

What happens just starch in plans when they break it down

The stored glucose becomes available

52

How and where do you store excess sugar (glucose) in your body? What happens when you need energy then?

Stored as granules in the cells and liver

53

What is an example of building a polymer

Cellulose

108

What is a mixture?

Two or more substances that are mixed but not chemically combined

109

What is a solvent?

A substance that dissolves the solute, resulting in a solution

110

What is a polar molecule?

A polar molecule has a positive and negative end because of electronegativity. H2O, for example, is a polar molecule because 1) it has lone pairs 2) the oxygen is pulling the electrons from the hydrogen into its vicinity making it have a slightly negative charge while the two hydrogens have a slightly positive charge.

111

What is a hydroxide ion?

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water.

112

What is a functional group?

a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.

113

What is a monomer?

a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

114

What is a dehydration reaction?

In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction is usually defined as a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reactions are a subset of elimination reactions. Because the hydroxyl group (–OH) is a poor leaving group.

115

What is the difference to dehydration reaction hydrolysis reaction?

Dehydration is when two molecules come together to produce a water (by bonding OH and H so you have H2O.) Hydrolysis is doing that in reverse. Breaking the H2O into H and OH and therefore breaking the bond.

116

What is a monosaccharide?

Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides like sucrose (common sugar) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula. For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but they have different chemical and physical properties.

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What is glucose?

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide found in plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with fructose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Wikipedia

118

What is cellulose?

an insoluble substance. A Polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plants on walls

119

What is a lipid?

One of a class of water avoiding compounds

120

What is the function of a lipid?

Lipids act as a boundary that surrounds and contains the aqueous contents of your cells. Other types of lipid molecules circulate in your body as chemical signals to cells. Still other lipids known as fats store energy in your body.

121

What is a sterol?

A sterol is a particular type of lipid that consists of four fused carbon rings with one oxygen molecule at the end.

122

What is protein?

Call constructed from a second 20 amino acid monomers

123

As a polypeptide?

Chain of link amino acids

124

What is an amino acid?

Passing Walmart consists of the central Carbon atom bonded four partners

125

What is an active site?

That substrate fits into a part of cool region of the enzyme called the active site.

126

What is the substrate?

A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme is called the enzymes substrate. The substrate fits into a particular region of the enzyme called the active site

127

What is a solution?

A uniform, homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

128

What does dilute mean?

To reduce the strength or concentration

129

What is an acid?

A compound that donates H+ ions to an aqueous and measures less than seven on the pH scale

130

What does inorganic mean?

Means it doesn't have carbon

131

What is carboxyl acid?

an organic acid characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group.

132

Fruit sugar?

Fructose

133

Organic catalyst made of protein?

Enzyme

134

Sugar in milk

Lactose

135

Lipid found in yourselves which can be bad for your heart

Cholesterol

136

Science word for fats

Lipids

137

What is the pocket in an enzyme?

The active site

138

Large biological polymers

Macro molecules

139

Molecules with the same formulas

Isomers

140

COOH group

Carboxyl acid

141

How do you find the atomic mass, proton number, neutron number, electron number and mass number of an atom?

Atomic Number = Number of Protons
No. of Protons = Number of Electrons (same number + as -)
Atomic Mass = Protons + Neutrons

142

You find the atomic mass?

Atomic Mass = Protons + Neutrons

143

Defining atomic number?

Number of protons

144

Where are the protons located on the periodic table?

Top

145

What is a compound

A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions.

146

What is a disaccharide?

Sugar with two monosaccharides

147

What is fructose?

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847.[3] Pure, dry fructose is a very sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars.[4] From plant sources, fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables..

148

What is glycogen?

Polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers

149

What is a saturated fatty acid?

a fatty acid whose carbon chain cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms; found chiefly in animal fats

150

What is glycerol?

Glycerol is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. Wikipedia

151

Peptide bond?

Chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds

152

Proteins have…

C, N, H & O and other elements. Look for the functional groups and H2 and COOH

153

Fats have…

Only C, H & O and there are usually chains of CD with lots of age but few O

154

Carbohydrates have…

Only C, H & O and there are always twice as many H as they do carbon. They also have lots of OH groups