Flashcards in Chemistry review Deck (101):
What is an atom?
The smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
What are energy levels?
A definite stable energy that a physical system can have; used especially of the state of electrons
What is a chemical symbol?
A 1 or 2 letter internationally agreed code for a chemical element
What is an ion?
An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
What is radiation?
The emission of energy from isotopes
What is a reactant?
Lewis dot model?
Shows the electrons
What is a chemical equation?
A chemical equation is symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the reactant entities are given on the left hand side and the product entities on the right hand side
What is an element?
An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom.
What is the atomic number?
the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus
What is an isotope?
When there is a different amount of neutrons
What is the atomic mass?
The number below the element symbol. The adverse of all the isotopes.
What is a product?
The ending material
What is a valence electron
Electrons on the outer most energy level
What is an ionic bond?
Bond formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another resulting in op ions, that chemically attract
What is CHNoPs?
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfer
What is the mass number?
Atomic mass with isotopes
How do you find neutrons?
Mass number - atomic number
How do you find protons/electrons?
What is the nucleus?
Center of the atom
What is a compound?
Two or more chemically combined elements
What does radioactive mean?
Gives off radiation
What is a chemical reaction?
When the chemical composition is changed
What is a trace element?
Element in your body that makes up less than 0.01 percent
What is a covalent bond?
Electrons are shared. Two non metals
What is a molecule?
The simplest structural unit of a compound
What does acid release when dissolved in water?
H+ (hydrogen ions)
What are some of the properties of acids?
There corrosives, and sour tasting
What does a base release when it is dissolved in water?
Hydroxide ion (OH-)
HCl ---> h+ + Cl
What are some examples of bases
Battery acid, vinegar
What is neutralization?
The process when an acid in a base our next resulting in water
What is a buffer?
Substance that causes a solution to resist change in pH
It is an example of a buffer?
Why is carbon used so much?
Makes covalent bonds, and bonds four times
What is organic chemistry?
The study of carbon containing compounds
What is polyethylene?
What do structural formulas show
How molecules Adams are arranged
What is a polymer?
A long chain of repeating similar units
What is a monomer?
A small compound that can be joined with other small compounds
What does carboxylic acid look like
The word carb is short for what?
Some examples of carbs a?
Sports drinks, pasta, potatoes, rice
What are simple sugars called
Monosaccharides, or sugar monomer
What is the job of a sugar molecule and how are they like a gasoline
Angel supply for cellular work, like gas for car
What is the function of a carbohydrate
Bonds break and give us energy
What is a call into sugars are tied together?
The best example of double sugar is
What are long chains of sugar monomers
What happens just starch in plans when they break it down
The stored glucose becomes available
How and where do you store excess sugar (glucose) in your body? What happens when you need energy then?
Stored as granules in the cells and liver
What is an example of building a polymer
What is a mixture?
Two or more substances that are mixed but not chemically combined
What is a solvent?
A substance that dissolves the solute, resulting in a solution
What is a polar molecule?
A polar molecule has a positive and negative end because of electronegativity. H2O, for example, is a polar molecule because 1) it has lone pairs 2) the oxygen is pulling the electrons from the hydrogen into its vicinity making it have a slightly negative charge while the two hydrogens have a slightly positive charge.
What is a hydroxide ion?
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water.
What is a functional group?
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.
What is a monomer?
a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
What is a dehydration reaction?
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction is usually defined as a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reactions are a subset of elimination reactions. Because the hydroxyl group (–OH) is a poor leaving group.
What is the difference to dehydration reaction hydrolysis reaction?
Dehydration is when two molecules come together to produce a water (by bonding OH and H so you have H2O.) Hydrolysis is doing that in reverse. Breaking the H2O into H and OH and therefore breaking the bond.
What is a monosaccharide?
Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides like sucrose (common sugar) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula. For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but they have different chemical and physical properties.
What is glucose?
Glucose is a simple monosaccharide found in plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with fructose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Wikipedia
What is cellulose?
an insoluble substance. A Polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plants on walls
What is a lipid?
One of a class of water avoiding compounds
What is the function of a lipid?
Lipids act as a boundary that surrounds and contains the aqueous contents of your cells. Other types of lipid molecules circulate in your body as chemical signals to cells. Still other lipids known as fats store energy in your body.
What is a sterol?
A sterol is a particular type of lipid that consists of four fused carbon rings with one oxygen molecule at the end.
What is protein?
Call constructed from a second 20 amino acid monomers
As a polypeptide?
Chain of link amino acids
What is an amino acid?
Passing Walmart consists of the central Carbon atom bonded four partners
What is an active site?
That substrate fits into a part of cool region of the enzyme called the active site.
What is the substrate?
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme is called the enzymes substrate. The substrate fits into a particular region of the enzyme called the active site
What is a solution?
A uniform, homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
What does dilute mean?
To reduce the strength or concentration
What is an acid?
A compound that donates H+ ions to an aqueous and measures less than seven on the pH scale
What does inorganic mean?
Means it doesn't have carbon
What is carboxyl acid?
an organic acid characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group.
Organic catalyst made of protein?
Sugar in milk
Lipid found in yourselves which can be bad for your heart
Science word for fats
What is the pocket in an enzyme?
The active site
Large biological polymers
Molecules with the same formulas
How do you find the atomic mass, proton number, neutron number, electron number and mass number of an atom?
Atomic Number = Number of Protons
No. of Protons = Number of Electrons (same number + as -)
Atomic Mass = Protons + Neutrons
You find the atomic mass?
Atomic Mass = Protons + Neutrons
Defining atomic number?
Number of protons
Where are the protons located on the periodic table?
What is a compound
A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
What is a disaccharide?
Sugar with two monosaccharides
What is fructose?
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847. Pure, dry fructose is a very sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars. From plant sources, fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables..
What is glycogen?
Polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
What is a saturated fatty acid?
a fatty acid whose carbon chain cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms; found chiefly in animal fats
What is glycerol?
Glycerol is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. Wikipedia
Chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
C, N, H & O and other elements. Look for the functional groups and H2 and COOH
Only C, H & O and there are usually chains of CD with lots of age but few O