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Flashcards in Biology Test 2 Deck (78):
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What is homeostasis?

The ability of organisms to regulate internal conditions despite change in external conditions.

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Unicellular?

Single celled life

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Multicellular?

Many celled

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Energy

The ability to get work done

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How do things get energy

From either photosynthesis or eating a photosynthesized thing

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What is a consumer?

One that eats producers to get energy

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What is a producer?

One that uses photosynthesis to obtain energy

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adaptation?

A trait that allows an organism to better survive in its environment

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Example of adaptation

Camouflage

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What are the different types of reproduction?

Sexual & Asexual

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What is sexual reproduction?

Needs another organism to reproduce

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Asexual Reproduction?

When a cell or life form splits into two

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What're the characteristics of life?

Homeostasis
Organized of Cells
Growth
Stimulus Response
Energy Required
Adaptation to Environment
Reproduce
Die
Excrete
Require water

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Formula of Glucose?

C6H12O6

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Cell energy formula

6CO2 + 6H2O

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Who created the first microscope?

Anton von Leewenhoek

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What were the first molecules observed from?

Pond water

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What were the things in pond water originally called?

Animalcules

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What is a prokaryote?

No nuclei. DNA is not separated from the ret of the cell. Usually unicellular

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What is a Eukaryote?

Contains nucleus that separates DNA from the rest if the cell. Mostly multicellular

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What was disproved in 1827

Sperm isn't tiny babies

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What did Robert Hooke observe a thin slice of?

Cork

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Who named cells?

Robert Hooke

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State the Cell Theory

The generalization that all living things are composed of cells and that cells are the basic unit of structure

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Theodar Schwann

Animals are made up of cells

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Mathais Schlieden

Plants are made up of cells

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Rudolf Virchow

Cells come from cells

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What is diffusion?

The tendency for molecules to spread out into available space

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What happens to your blood cell if there is too much water in your blood?

The sellable gain water, swell and explode

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What is an active transport?

Transport that requires energy

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What are some of the requirements to move molecules?

Energy, and a doorway

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What is exocytosis?

Process of materials inside the cell being released outside the cell

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What is passive cellular transport?

Transport of materials in or out of the so that does not require cell energy

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What does selectively permeable mean?

Allows some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others and it blocks the passage of some substances altogether

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Osmosis?

The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

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Hypertonic?

More solute

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Hypotonic?

Less solute

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Facilitated diffusion?

The movement of a molecule through a membrane protein from high to low concentration

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Transport proteins?

Integral proteins that allow materials to pass through the membranes

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Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

Energy used – electron
Magnification - 100,000
Used for - surfaces (3D)
This advantage – requires a vacuum chamber & can't see inside

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Stereo microscope (SM)

Used for - seeing surfaces of multicellular structures (like skin) in classrooms study cells and parts.
Disadvantages - and not see within specimen low magnification
Magnification - 30x

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Transmission electron microscope (TEM)

Energy used - electron
Magnification - 300,000
Used for - seeing inside
Diadvantages – produces flat image. Kills specimen

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Compound light microscope (CM)

Magnification - 3000X
Disadvantages - limited resolution
Energy - light
Used for - 3d image

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What is the function of plasma membranes?

And bring separates the interior of a cell from the outside environment

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Where is the nucleus located?

The center of the cell

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Cytosol

Solution of water, ions and macromolecules

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What is the function of cytoplasm?

Holds most organelles

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What is the function of the cytoskeleton

I support, maintains the shape of the cell, hold many organelles in place, can hope the sound booth.

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Is the cytoskeleton made of?

Fiberous proteins

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Can ribosomes be found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

Yes

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What is the Golgi body/apparatus

Stack of flat membrane sacks

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Describe the Golgi and ER interact

The ER has ribosomes that produce proteins. Proteins are then transported to the Goldy apparatus where post transport modifications occur

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What is the middle lamella

Holds together the primary ball and the secondary wall in plant cells

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What does fluid Mosaic mean?

It is called Mosaic because the proteins are embedded in that phospholipids like a mosaic and fluid because Helaire itself is somewhat fluid

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How do membranes help with a cell communication and with the transport of materials?

Membranes regulate the transport of substances

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Chloroplast

The organelle that shops light and converts it to chlorophyll

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What is the structure of chloroplasts?

Contains own DNA, two outer membrane sacks inner green sacs/powerpacks

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What is the function of mitochondria

Turn the sugar into ATP (sell energy) in a process called cellular respiration

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What are the similarities and differences of cilia and flagella?

They are both cell organelles. Structural early similar, cilia are short and there are more of them but flagella are longer and there are fewer of them

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How does the cytoskeleton help the amoeba move?

Cytoskeleton when rebuilds will cause the cell to move

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Phosphate head?

Hydrophilic

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Phospholipid Byler

Two tales made of fatty acid. Hydrophobic tails

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Cholesterol

Used to help keep the membrane fluid like/liquid

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Carbohydrate tags attached on outside

Used as identification

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Properties allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through a membrane

If they are tiny and have no charge

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What is diffusion?

The tendency for molecules to spread out into available space

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What is equilibrium?

The state when the concentration of a molecule is the same through the environment but the molecules don't stop moving

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Facilitated

Uses protein (doorway)

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Osmosis

Diffusion of water

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Millimeters 2 micrometers

1000 mm in one micrometer

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How do you find the magnification?

Eye piece times objective

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Nucleus

Stores DNA which tells the cell what to do

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What is the dark region of the nucleus

Nucleolus (extra DNA) place where ribosomes are made

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What is the function of the Golgi body

Modifies stuff from lipids and proteins and adds chemicals and folds

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Lysosomes

& To fill the socks used to digest materials

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Vesicles

Carries from rough ER to the Golgi

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What is the thing that is made up of cellulose and is found outside the cell membrane implants

Cell wall

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Being shaped organelle that burns glucose and stores energy is ATP

Mitochondria