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Flashcards in Body Systems Deck (154):
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alveolus

one of millions of tiny sacs within the lungs where gas exchange occurs

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one of millions of tiny sacs within the lungs where gas exchange occurs

alveolus

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alveoli

millions of tiny sacs within the lungs were gas exchange occurs

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capillary

microscopic blood vessel that carries blood between an artery and a vein, allowing the exchange of substances between the blood and intestinal fluid

4

urethra

tube leading from the urinary bladder through which urine exits the body

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diabetes

disease in which body cells cannot absorb enough glucose from the blood

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the waste made from poisonous nitrogen and is collected by the kidney

urea

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the amount of heat needed to raise 1 g of water by 1°C

calorie

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process where the kidneys return water to the blood instead of peeing it out

reabsorption

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the villi work to

absorb nutrients into the blood

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The small tubules found in the kidney that filter your blood

nephron

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what tube leads to the stomach

esophagus

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The tube that leads from the kidney to the bladder

ureter

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alveoli

sacs where oxygen diffuses into the blood

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bronchi

branches into lungs

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hold vocal cords

larynx

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tube to lungs

trachea

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function of the oral cavity and nasal passage

humidify and filter

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why must we breathe? Where does the oxygen need to go?

we need to breed for so respiration. Mitochondria. Oxygen and sugars. Releases ATPs plus water

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volume of the cavity is increased so pressure in the cavity is

decreased

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air enters because there is more or less air pressure?

less

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liver jobs

involved in digestion
makes bile
makes urea
blood clotting
stores sugar as glycogen

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kidney jobs

involved in urination
pees urea out
damaged from diabetes
see if the sugar from being urinated out

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similarities in kidney and liver

filter blood
balance sugar

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what blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?

artery

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structure of artery

3 thick layers. no valves

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which blood vessel carries blood to the heart?

veins

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vein structure

3 layers of tissue with 1 way valves

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which blood vessel exchanges food, waste and gases with body cells?

capillaries

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capillary structure

1 thin layer

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proper name for red blood cells

erythrocytes

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what do erythrocytes carry? what does what they carry bind to?

carries hemoglobin which binds to O2 (oxygen)

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dead cells used in clotting

platelets

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proper name for white blood cells

leukocytes
(immune cells)

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what is plasma made of mostly?

mainly water
proteins
antibodies
fibrin (factor VIII)
cell food
no gases
traveling hormones (LH, Testosterone, insulin)

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steps of healing a cut

platelets plug
clotting factors reinforce
fibrin acts as a glue
erythrocytes and leukocytes support clot

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muscular pump that moves blood

heart

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"pacemaker"

set of nerves that trigger beating of heart

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lub dub sound is due to..

valves opening and closing

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leaky valves make a..

heart murmer

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arterial spray

blood squirt is the effect when an artery, a blood vessel in the human body is cut. Blood-pressure causes the blood to bleed out out in a spray, squirt, jet or gush coinciding with the beatof the heart, rather than the slower, but steady flow of venous bleeding

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vitamin/mineral

digestion nutrients
vitamins/mineral help enzymes function

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urea

compound formed in the liver from ammonia/carbon dioxide and excreted primarily by the kidneys

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ureter

tube extending from each kidney that carries urine to the urinary bladder

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endocrine

set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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amylase/ sodium bicarbonate

part of pancreas system
sb- a base, helps neutralize stomach acid

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what do the kidneys respond to high levels of? how do they respond?

water in the blood
produce a large volume of urine

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the three parts of urine

urea
water
salts

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the way large quantities of insulin can be made to be provided to diabetics

genetic engineering

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a small circle of DNA found in bacteria that the insulin gene is inserted into

plasmid

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used to cut dna to insert a gene

restriction enzyme

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stored in the liver

glycogen

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type of diabetes usually found in children

type 1

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the three main functions of the kidney are to:

filter wastes
regulate the composition of solutes in the urine
conserve water

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the kidney is made of millions of tiny units called...

nephrons

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nephrons are made up of..

glomerulus
tubules
collecting duct

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what do the different part of the nephrons work together to do?

work together to convert substances filtered from the blood into urine

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what forces plasma from the blood into a cup like part of the nephron

blood pressure

solutes like urea, sodium ions and glucose enter the nephron

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sodium bicarbonate

pancreas dumps it in small intestine
neutralize the stomach acid in intestine

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type 1 and 2

type 1: cant make insulin. bad genes or immune system destroyed it. diet. more common in children.
type 2: no longer responds to insulin. due to obesity/not enoug exercise. later in life. makes insulin but not enough

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leaky cardiac valve

causes heart burn

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glucagon

made by pancreas
Goes to liver and tells the liver to take glycogen (polymer made of glucose.
insulin tells you to open doorway and store glucose in liver. stores as glycogen.

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insulin store
glucose is release
so they are

opposites

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glycogen is broken down to make

glucose

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fibrin

made by liver
clotting protein
acts as glue. fills in creases

65

blood from body. drop off to oxygen. needs more. blood goes to right atrium. no oxygen. goes to right atrium. door slams. still no oxygen. goes to lungs. gets oxygen. now it has food and oxygen. goes back to body now because it has everyone you want in it. goes to left atrium. aorta (tube) sends it to the body.

steps of blood

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exhalation

exhaling is when pressure is decreased. ribs go down diaphragm goes up. air leaves lungs through trachea

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split parts of trachea that connect to each lung

bronchi

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each alveoli has to have what to carry the oxygen?

capillaries

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function of rectum

last part of large intestine. holds fesses

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liver sends poisons urea to kidneys. filtration = anything small leaves blood and goes to kidneys. anything small goes to kidneys including the urea, salts, sugars, water. reabsorbs sugar, water,
things filtration misses is secretion which happens in tube. medicine. alch. drugs. what you secret will ultimately be peed out.

:-)

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saves water

adh

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food you cant digest

pooping


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e.coli and cellulose

most of feeces

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calorie

the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water by 1 degree Celsius. however, I calorie is such a tiny unit of energy that it is not very practical for measuring the energy content of food. Instead, people usually express energy and food in kilo calories. 1 kg calorie (kcal) equals 1000 calories. the "calories" are shown on s food labdl are actually kilocalories.

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why use kilocalories to measure instead of calorie?

I calorie is such a tiny unit of energy that it is not very practical for measuring the energy content of food. Instead, people usually express energy and food and kilo calories

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ATP

adenosine triphosphate. cell energy

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stomach

elastic, muscular sac where some chemical and some mechanical digestion take place

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pacemaker

specific region of the heart that sets the rate at which the heart contracts

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pancreas

gland that makes digestive enzymes and secrets them into the small intestine; makes the hormones glucagon and insulin and secretes them into the blood

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vein

vessel that returns blood to the heart

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villus/villi

finger like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine that functions in absorbing nutrients

82

how do all heterotrophs obtain nutrients?

food

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what does your body use raw material to make?

uses to build tissue
fuel cellular work

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six kinds of nutrients in food

carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water

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why must food be broken down?

contains large, complex molecules. These large molecules, such as starch and other polymers, are too big to pass through the membranes into the cells where they are needed. In addition, the polymers are not the same polymers that make up your body. For example, the cheese on a slice of pizza is partially made up of proteins. These cheese proteins are polymers that can't be used as is by your cells. Instead, the cheese proteins must be broken down into their basic building blocks (monomers)- amino acids.

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the act of eating or drinking

ingestion

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the process of how your body obtains raw materials from food

nutrition

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digestion

the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb. polysaccharides into monosaccharides (simple sugars)

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steps of digestion

mechanical digestion (chewing/churning.) smaller pieces, increasing its surface area, this improves effectiveness of second step
chemical digestion. breaks the chemical bonds within the large molecules that make up food, producing smaller building block molecules. acids and enzymes in your stomach.


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absorption

certain cells take up (absorb) the small molecules. the circulatory system then transports the nutrients throughout the body

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elimination

undigested materials pass out of the body in this stage

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four stages of food processing

ingestion
digestion
absorption
elimination

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where does digestion occur?

tube called alimentary canal. food moves in one direction through the alimentary canal, which is organized into special regions that carry out digestion and absorption in a step-by-step process. Food enters the canal through the mouth and waste leaves through the anus. However, the alimentary canal is much longer than the distance between these two openings. For instance a person 1.8 m tall can have a 9 m elementary canal. The tube that fits inside the body because portions wind and loop the back-and-forth.

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pH of juices in the stomach

pH of 2
dissolve iron nails

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enough new cells are generated through what to completely replace your stomach lining every three days

mitosis

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which six main organs make up the alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and a large intestine

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which glands/organs secrete digestive juices

salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder

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mouth/oral cavity

The mouth functions both in a ingestion and in the beginning of digestion. Mechanical and Chemical digestion both begin in your mouth.

99

what do teeth do?

Teeth and tongue are responsible for mechanical digestion. The various shapes of different types of teeth cut, smash, and grind food into smaller pieces. This makes the food easier to swallow and exposes more surface area to digestive enzymes.

100

salivary glands

salivary glands in your mouth region secrete more than one liter of liquid. this liquid, called saliva, contains digestive enzymes, mucus, and other chemicals.

101

saliva

contains digestive enzymes, and mucus, and other chemicals. The salivary enzyme called amylase begins the chemical digestion of the polysaccharide starch. The main product of amylase are smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose. Other chemicals in saliva kill bacteria and neutralize certain acids in foods, protecting your teeth from decay.

102

amylase

amylase begins the chemical digestion of the polysaccharide starch. The main product of amylase are smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose.

found in mouth and pancreas

103

bolus

chewed clump of food

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tongue function

pushes bolus down the throat

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pharynx

upper portion of the throat
passageway by which air enters the lungs

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epiglottis

when you swallow, a cartilage flap called the epiglottis temporarily seals off the airway and prevents food from entering the lungs

107

esophagus

A long, muscle incased tube. connects pharynx to the stomach. Oriented vertically in the body, gravity is not the reason the food moves towards your stomach. Food is pushed through the esophagus by a series of muscle contractions called peristalsis

108

why is gravity not the reason food goes down the esophagus?

if that were the case, astronauts would not be able to eat or drink in space where there is zero gravity

109

peristalsis

pushed through the esophagus by a series of muscle contractions
The muscles at the very top of the esophagus are strained (voluntary), which means that swallowing may begin voluntarily. But the muscle layer's around the rest of the esophagus are smooth, (involuntary). Once a bolus of food reaches the pharynx, the smooth muscle triggers the swallowing reflex. The smooth muscles contract in a wavelike motion that forces the bolus of food toward the stomach.

110

mouth - throat

oral cavity
pharynx
esophagus
stomach

111

an elastic, muscular sac capable of stretching to hold up to two lieters

stomach

112

gastrix juice

A liquid secreted by glands in the stomach lining, bathes the bolus after it enters the stomach. Gastric juice is a mixture of mucus, HCl, and enzymes.

113

HCL

hydrochloric acid

114

hydrochloric acid

parts of the gastric juice. Hydrochloric acid breaks apart the cells in food. It also kills many of the bacteria swallowed with food. One of the gastric enzymes, pepsin, hydrolyzes large protein molecules into smaller polypeptides

115

pepsin

gastric enzyme
hydrolyzes large protein molecules into smaller polypeptides

116

chyme

mechanical digestion turns the bolus into an acidic liquid called chyme. stomach muscles contract, creating a churning motion that stirs the time and eventually forces the chyme into the small intestine

117

when is the passageway between the esophagus and stomach suppose to open?

and peristalsis delivers a bolus

118

heartburn

when the passageway (cardiac sphincter) opens at inappropriate times, allowing acidic chyme to flow back words into the esophagus. This creates the burning sensation

119

pyloric sphincter

regulates the flow of chyme into the small intestine
2-6 hours for stomach to empty

120

small intestine

A long, narrow tube where digestion is completed and absorption of most nutrients takes place. Peristalsis moves chyme along the small intestine. Digestion mostly occurs in the first portion of the small intestine, while absorption occurs along the rest of its length.

121

first section of small intestine

duodenum

122

bile

produced outside of the small intestine by the body's largest internal organ, the liver. Bile is stored in a saclike structure called the gallbladder until it is secreted into the duodenum. Although bile contains no enzymes, it contain substances that help prepare fats such as those in butter and such for digestion. Fats tend to clump together into globs, making it difficult for enzymes to reach the molecules. Bile separates small fat droplets, preventing them into clumping into globs. this enables digestive enzymes to break in the fats down the more effectively

123

where is bile stored?

Bile is stored in a saclike structure called the gallbladder

124

gallbladder

saclike structure where bile is stored

125

largest internal body organ

liver

126

how does bile work of it contains no enzymes?

Although bile contains no enzymes, it contain substances that help prepare fats such as those in butter and such for digestion.

127

why is bile essential in digestion?

Fats tend to clump together into globs, making it difficult for enzymes to reach the molecules. Bile separates small fat droplets, preventing them into clumping into globs. this enables digestive enzymes to break in the fats down the more effectively

128

produces and secretes pancreatic juice into that duodendum. Pancreatic juice neutralizes the acid chyme and also contains enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates, proteins, lipids. Other pancreatic enzymes, along with enzymes secreted by the lining of the small intestine, complete the chemical digestion of food

pancreas

129

end result of digestion

carbohydrates are hydrolyzed to monosaccharides. providrs cells with a source of energy. individual amino acids

130

The wall of the small intestine is folded into many small projections called

villi

131

what are the inner foldings of the small intestine? what do they do?

villi
increase the surface area for absorption

132

sodium bicarbonate

adds a base to neutralize

133

pancreas

organ that helps digestion and makes hormones. it makes: sodium bicarbonate, amylase, trypsin/chymotrypsin, enzymes and neutralize for digestion

134

large intestion

aka colon, a large tube that surrounds the small intestine. E. Coli symbiont produces vitamin K. the large intestine absorbs water, vitamins and minerals

135

filtration

the 1st step og urine excretion.

136

long tubules in the kidney that filters urea, salts and water from the blood to make urinary excretion

nephron

137

endocrine system

set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream

138

pituitary releases..

FSH, LH, Growth hormone, adh

139

ADH

antidiuretic hormone
anti peeing that tells the kidney to stop releasing water; stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water

140

tells liver to store as sugar

insulin

141

your pancreas does not make enough insulin do the sugar goes into the blood. you pee out sugar and destroy the kidneys

diabetes

142

thyroid

releases thyroxine
stimulates metabolism (in the throat)

143

adrenal

re,eases adrenaline, which increases "energy" by increasing blood sugar and heart rate
above lungs

144

metabolism things

thyroid and adrenal

145

stores solid waste, temporary storage for feces

rectum

146

atrium

the two upper chambers that pump blood out of the heart. they have thicker muscular walls that enable them to pump blood throughout the body

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where does blood travel after blood from the lungs gathers in the left atrium and flow to the left ventricle

it travels to the aorta

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aorta

the artery that supplies oxygen rich blood to all the body

149

diaphragm

a sheet if muscle, which forms the bottom walk of the chest cavity and plays a role in breathing

150

steps of inhalation

air enters
the rib cage expands as the rib muscles contract
the diaphragm contracts and moves down

pressure decreases

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steps of exhalation

the rib cage moves down and in
the lungs get smaller
the diaphragm

pressure increases

152

dendrites

numerous fiber branchings that recieve signals

153

major function of the large intestine

reabsorb water