Flashcards in Body Systems Deck (154):
one of millions of tiny sacs within the lungs where gas exchange occurs
one of millions of tiny sacs within the lungs where gas exchange occurs
millions of tiny sacs within the lungs were gas exchange occurs
microscopic blood vessel that carries blood between an artery and a vein, allowing the exchange of substances between the blood and intestinal fluid
tube leading from the urinary bladder through which urine exits the body
disease in which body cells cannot absorb enough glucose from the blood
the waste made from poisonous nitrogen and is collected by the kidney
the amount of heat needed to raise 1 g of water by 1°C
process where the kidneys return water to the blood instead of peeing it out
the villi work to
absorb nutrients into the blood
The small tubules found in the kidney that filter your blood
what tube leads to the stomach
The tube that leads from the kidney to the bladder
sacs where oxygen diffuses into the blood
branches into lungs
hold vocal cords
tube to lungs
function of the oral cavity and nasal passage
humidify and filter
why must we breathe? Where does the oxygen need to go?
we need to breed for so respiration. Mitochondria. Oxygen and sugars. Releases ATPs plus water
volume of the cavity is increased so pressure in the cavity is
air enters because there is more or less air pressure?
involved in digestion
stores sugar as glycogen
involved in urination
pees urea out
damaged from diabetes
see if the sugar from being urinated out
similarities in kidney and liver
what blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?
structure of artery
3 thick layers. no valves
which blood vessel carries blood to the heart?
3 layers of tissue with 1 way valves
which blood vessel exchanges food, waste and gases with body cells?
1 thin layer
proper name for red blood cells
what do erythrocytes carry? what does what they carry bind to?
carries hemoglobin which binds to O2 (oxygen)
dead cells used in clotting
proper name for white blood cells
what is plasma made of mostly?
fibrin (factor VIII)
traveling hormones (LH, Testosterone, insulin)
steps of healing a cut
clotting factors reinforce
fibrin acts as a glue
erythrocytes and leukocytes support clot
muscular pump that moves blood
set of nerves that trigger beating of heart
lub dub sound is due to..
valves opening and closing
leaky valves make a..
blood squirt is the effect when an artery, a blood vessel in the human body is cut. Blood-pressure causes the blood to bleed out out in a spray, squirt, jet or gush coinciding with the beatof the heart, rather than the slower, but steady flow of venous bleeding
vitamins/mineral help enzymes function
compound formed in the liver from ammonia/carbon dioxide and excreted primarily by the kidneys
tube extending from each kidney that carries urine to the urinary bladder
set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
amylase/ sodium bicarbonate
part of pancreas system
sb- a base, helps neutralize stomach acid
what do the kidneys respond to high levels of? how do they respond?
water in the blood
produce a large volume of urine
the three parts of urine
the way large quantities of insulin can be made to be provided to diabetics
a small circle of DNA found in bacteria that the insulin gene is inserted into
used to cut dna to insert a gene
stored in the liver
type of diabetes usually found in children
the three main functions of the kidney are to:
regulate the composition of solutes in the urine
the kidney is made of millions of tiny units called...
nephrons are made up of..
what do the different part of the nephrons work together to do?
work together to convert substances filtered from the blood into urine
what forces plasma from the blood into a cup like part of the nephron
solutes like urea, sodium ions and glucose enter the nephron
pancreas dumps it in small intestine
neutralize the stomach acid in intestine
type 1 and 2
type 1: cant make insulin. bad genes or immune system destroyed it. diet. more common in children.
type 2: no longer responds to insulin. due to obesity/not enoug exercise. later in life. makes insulin but not enough
leaky cardiac valve
causes heart burn
made by pancreas
Goes to liver and tells the liver to take glycogen (polymer made of glucose.
insulin tells you to open doorway and store glucose in liver. stores as glycogen.
glucose is release
so they are
glycogen is broken down to make
made by liver
acts as glue. fills in creases
blood from body. drop off to oxygen. needs more. blood goes to right atrium. no oxygen. goes to right atrium. door slams. still no oxygen. goes to lungs. gets oxygen. now it has food and oxygen. goes back to body now because it has everyone you want in it. goes to left atrium. aorta (tube) sends it to the body.
steps of blood
exhaling is when pressure is decreased. ribs go down diaphragm goes up. air leaves lungs through trachea
split parts of trachea that connect to each lung
each alveoli has to have what to carry the oxygen?
function of rectum
last part of large intestine. holds fesses
liver sends poisons urea to kidneys. filtration = anything small leaves blood and goes to kidneys. anything small goes to kidneys including the urea, salts, sugars, water. reabsorbs sugar, water,
things filtration misses is secretion which happens in tube. medicine. alch. drugs. what you secret will ultimately be peed out.
food you cant digest
e.coli and cellulose
most of feeces
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water by 1 degree Celsius. however, I calorie is such a tiny unit of energy that it is not very practical for measuring the energy content of food. Instead, people usually express energy and food in kilo calories. 1 kg calorie (kcal) equals 1000 calories. the "calories" are shown on s food labdl are actually kilocalories.
why use kilocalories to measure instead of calorie?
I calorie is such a tiny unit of energy that it is not very practical for measuring the energy content of food. Instead, people usually express energy and food and kilo calories
adenosine triphosphate. cell energy
elastic, muscular sac where some chemical and some mechanical digestion take place
specific region of the heart that sets the rate at which the heart contracts
gland that makes digestive enzymes and secrets them into the small intestine; makes the hormones glucagon and insulin and secretes them into the blood
vessel that returns blood to the heart
finger like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine that functions in absorbing nutrients
how do all heterotrophs obtain nutrients?
what does your body use raw material to make?
uses to build tissue
fuel cellular work
six kinds of nutrients in food
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
why must food be broken down?
contains large, complex molecules. These large molecules, such as starch and other polymers, are too big to pass through the membranes into the cells where they are needed. In addition, the polymers are not the same polymers that make up your body. For example, the cheese on a slice of pizza is partially made up of proteins. These cheese proteins are polymers that can't be used as is by your cells. Instead, the cheese proteins must be broken down into their basic building blocks (monomers)- amino acids.
the act of eating or drinking
the process of how your body obtains raw materials from food
the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb. polysaccharides into monosaccharides (simple sugars)
steps of digestion
mechanical digestion (chewing/churning.) smaller pieces, increasing its surface area, this improves effectiveness of second step
chemical digestion. breaks the chemical bonds within the large molecules that make up food, producing smaller building block molecules. acids and enzymes in your stomach.
certain cells take up (absorb) the small molecules. the circulatory system then transports the nutrients throughout the body
undigested materials pass out of the body in this stage
four stages of food processing
where does digestion occur?
tube called alimentary canal. food moves in one direction through the alimentary canal, which is organized into special regions that carry out digestion and absorption in a step-by-step process. Food enters the canal through the mouth and waste leaves through the anus. However, the alimentary canal is much longer than the distance between these two openings. For instance a person 1.8 m tall can have a 9 m elementary canal. The tube that fits inside the body because portions wind and loop the back-and-forth.
pH of juices in the stomach
pH of 2
dissolve iron nails
enough new cells are generated through what to completely replace your stomach lining every three days
which six main organs make up the alimentary canal
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and a large intestine
which glands/organs secrete digestive juices
salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
The mouth functions both in a ingestion and in the beginning of digestion. Mechanical and Chemical digestion both begin in your mouth.
what do teeth do?
Teeth and tongue are responsible for mechanical digestion. The various shapes of different types of teeth cut, smash, and grind food into smaller pieces. This makes the food easier to swallow and exposes more surface area to digestive enzymes.
salivary glands in your mouth region secrete more than one liter of liquid. this liquid, called saliva, contains digestive enzymes, mucus, and other chemicals.
contains digestive enzymes, and mucus, and other chemicals. The salivary enzyme called amylase begins the chemical digestion of the polysaccharide starch. The main product of amylase are smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose. Other chemicals in saliva kill bacteria and neutralize certain acids in foods, protecting your teeth from decay.
amylase begins the chemical digestion of the polysaccharide starch. The main product of amylase are smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose.
found in mouth and pancreas
chewed clump of food
pushes bolus down the throat
upper portion of the throat
passageway by which air enters the lungs
when you swallow, a cartilage flap called the epiglottis temporarily seals off the airway and prevents food from entering the lungs
A long, muscle incased tube. connects pharynx to the stomach. Oriented vertically in the body, gravity is not the reason the food moves towards your stomach. Food is pushed through the esophagus by a series of muscle contractions called peristalsis
why is gravity not the reason food goes down the esophagus?
if that were the case, astronauts would not be able to eat or drink in space where there is zero gravity
pushed through the esophagus by a series of muscle contractions
The muscles at the very top of the esophagus are strained (voluntary), which means that swallowing may begin voluntarily. But the muscle layer's around the rest of the esophagus are smooth, (involuntary). Once a bolus of food reaches the pharynx, the smooth muscle triggers the swallowing reflex. The smooth muscles contract in a wavelike motion that forces the bolus of food toward the stomach.
mouth - throat
an elastic, muscular sac capable of stretching to hold up to two lieters
A liquid secreted by glands in the stomach lining, bathes the bolus after it enters the stomach. Gastric juice is a mixture of mucus, HCl, and enzymes.
parts of the gastric juice. Hydrochloric acid breaks apart the cells in food. It also kills many of the bacteria swallowed with food. One of the gastric enzymes, pepsin, hydrolyzes large protein molecules into smaller polypeptides
hydrolyzes large protein molecules into smaller polypeptides
mechanical digestion turns the bolus into an acidic liquid called chyme. stomach muscles contract, creating a churning motion that stirs the time and eventually forces the chyme into the small intestine
when is the passageway between the esophagus and stomach suppose to open?
and peristalsis delivers a bolus
when the passageway (cardiac sphincter) opens at inappropriate times, allowing acidic chyme to flow back words into the esophagus. This creates the burning sensation
regulates the flow of chyme into the small intestine
2-6 hours for stomach to empty
A long, narrow tube where digestion is completed and absorption of most nutrients takes place. Peristalsis moves chyme along the small intestine. Digestion mostly occurs in the first portion of the small intestine, while absorption occurs along the rest of its length.
first section of small intestine
produced outside of the small intestine by the body's largest internal organ, the liver. Bile is stored in a saclike structure called the gallbladder until it is secreted into the duodenum. Although bile contains no enzymes, it contain substances that help prepare fats such as those in butter and such for digestion. Fats tend to clump together into globs, making it difficult for enzymes to reach the molecules. Bile separates small fat droplets, preventing them into clumping into globs. this enables digestive enzymes to break in the fats down the more effectively
where is bile stored?
Bile is stored in a saclike structure called the gallbladder
saclike structure where bile is stored
largest internal body organ
how does bile work of it contains no enzymes?
Although bile contains no enzymes, it contain substances that help prepare fats such as those in butter and such for digestion.
why is bile essential in digestion?
Fats tend to clump together into globs, making it difficult for enzymes to reach the molecules. Bile separates small fat droplets, preventing them into clumping into globs. this enables digestive enzymes to break in the fats down the more effectively
produces and secretes pancreatic juice into that duodendum. Pancreatic juice neutralizes the acid chyme and also contains enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates, proteins, lipids. Other pancreatic enzymes, along with enzymes secreted by the lining of the small intestine, complete the chemical digestion of food
end result of digestion
carbohydrates are hydrolyzed to monosaccharides. providrs cells with a source of energy. individual amino acids
The wall of the small intestine is folded into many small projections called
what are the inner foldings of the small intestine? what do they do?
increase the surface area for absorption
adds a base to neutralize
organ that helps digestion and makes hormones. it makes: sodium bicarbonate, amylase, trypsin/chymotrypsin, enzymes and neutralize for digestion
aka colon, a large tube that surrounds the small intestine. E. Coli symbiont produces vitamin K. the large intestine absorbs water, vitamins and minerals
the 1st step og urine excretion.
long tubules in the kidney that filters urea, salts and water from the blood to make urinary excretion
set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream
FSH, LH, Growth hormone, adh
anti peeing that tells the kidney to stop releasing water; stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water
tells liver to store as sugar
your pancreas does not make enough insulin do the sugar goes into the blood. you pee out sugar and destroy the kidneys
stimulates metabolism (in the throat)
re,eases adrenaline, which increases "energy" by increasing blood sugar and heart rate
thyroid and adrenal
stores solid waste, temporary storage for feces
the two upper chambers that pump blood out of the heart. they have thicker muscular walls that enable them to pump blood throughout the body
where does blood travel after blood from the lungs gathers in the left atrium and flow to the left ventricle
it travels to the aorta
the artery that supplies oxygen rich blood to all the body
a sheet if muscle, which forms the bottom walk of the chest cavity and plays a role in breathing
steps of inhalation
the rib cage expands as the rib muscles contract
the diaphragm contracts and moves down
steps of exhalation
the rib cage moves down and in
the lungs get smaller
numerous fiber branchings that recieve signals