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plasmid

small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the much larger bacterial chromosome, used as vectors to insert DNA

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vector

gene carriers to insert DNA during genetic engineering (plasmid, viruses, liposomes)

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restriction enzymes

cutting tools used for making recombinant DNA or DNA profiles (protects bacteria against viruses)

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sticky ends

single stranded ends of the DNA and are used to join together the fragments created by restriction enzymes

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probe

labeled complementary piece of nucleic acid used to find a specific gene within a mass of DNA (during southern blots)

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what is genetic engineering

insertion or modification of genes to produce desired proteins

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recombinant DNA

formed when two fragments of DNA cut by the same restriction enzyme come together, and join by base pairing

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what is gel electrophoresis?

electric gradient moves DNA through agarose gel creating readable pattern of DNA fragments

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which moves faster and electrophoresis: small or large fragments?

small move faster

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is DNA positively or negatively charged?

negatively charged

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IN electrophoresis DNA moves toward the blank electrode

positive

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PCR

tool that copies DNA pieces quickly

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uses for DNA profiling

solves crimes (rape/murder) identify bodies, identify paternity, diagnose genetic diseases

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enzyme needed in PCR

DNA polymerase

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steps to add a gene to a bacteria

main goal- deliberately remove genetic material from one organism and insert it into a bacteria
form genetic clones
step one – Gene is identified by a probe
step two – Gene is cut using restriction enzyme
step three - cut plasmid using same restriction enzyme
step four - insert gene into a plasmid, sticky ends fuse
step five – plasmid inserts gene into a bacteria
step six – bacteria makes desired protein

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proteins produced by genetically engineered bacteria

insulin, factor 8, cellulase, "snow" protein

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southern blot

uses probes to bind to DNA bands in gel to make a permanent Xray image of DNA profile

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steps of DNA profile (fingerprints)

collect DNA/cell sample
extract DNA from cell and purify
copy DNA with PCR
Cut DNA with restriction enzymes
sort DNA pieces with electrophoresis
tag DNA bands with probe
make permanent with Southern blot

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sources of DNA in a fingerprint

any cell

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gel of electrophoresis

agarose

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human genome project

International project that found the DNA code of humans

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the heads of the human genome project

James Watson
Dr. Francis

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creator of fast way to sequence a gene using computers

Craig Venter

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gene sequencing

uses electrophoresis to find the order of the bases of a gene/piece of DNA

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liposome

small ball of lipids with a gene inside that acts as a vector to insert DNA during engineering

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gene insertion

process using vector to put a gene into another life form

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chromatography

technique used to separate molecules (dyes) using paper and solvent (water)

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transgenic

an organism with a new gene inserted into it/GMO

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GMO stands for

genetically modified organism

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genetic engineering

any process that uses restriction enzymes to alter DNA

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biotechnology

the use of organisms to preform practical tasks for humans

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DNA technology

Applications that analyze and manipulate the genomes of organisms on the molecular level

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recombinant DNA technology

combines genes from different sources, even different species, into a single DNA molecule.

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why are genomes important?

knowledgeable genomes can lead to useful applications. For example, sequencing the genomes of rice could lead to new ways of making it a more nutritious food source

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genome

The haploid set of chromosomes and again the microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism

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polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

I Teknika that makes copies of certain segments of DNA without using living cells
can generate 100 billion identical molecules in just a few hours
can copy one specific segment from within a tremendous length of dna

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steps of pcr making copies

heat is added to separate strands
The mixture is cooled and primers bind to strands
DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to strands producing two daughter molecules
process is repeated

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primers

short strands of DNA the pair with unknown sequence in the target DNA

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where are restriction enzymes found in nature

bacteria
protect the bacteria against intruding DNA from other organisms and phages

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which food items stores the most calories per gram? Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins

lipids

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which enzyme breaks down protein in the stomach

pepsin

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A group of living tissues working together to perform one function are collectively called a

organ

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you inhale so yourselves can break down what during what

sugar/cell respiration

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structure of a neuron

cell body that houses the neurons nucleus and most of the organelles
two types of fibers protect from the cell body (dendrites and axon)

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examples of genetically altered bacteria

a version of human insulin gene and inserted it into the bacteria Escherichia coli to produce synthetic human insulin
clotting factors to treat hemophilia
HGH (human growth hormone) to treat dwarfism

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examples of genetically modified plants

tomato with fish genes to not frost
golden rice
corn that is resistant to pesticides

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in vitro fertilization (IVF)

manually come binding egg and sperm in a leftish. Transfer embryos into the. Bad because overrides the body's natural desires. Makes multiple embryos. Implants 3 to 5 embryos. Hopefully one in beds into that endometrium. woman must take lots of hormones to mature eggs.

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preimplantation generic diagnosis (PGD)

make multiple embryos to implant healthy one

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oocyte

immature egg cell

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somatic cell

diploid
not a sex cell

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somatic nuclear transfer

dolly the sheep
cloning
fertilized egg, take out nucleus of somatic cell, put in somatic cell nucleus into fertilized egg that has the nucleus taken out of, egg cell divides to make babies, tumors are already shortened.

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bipedal

uses only two legs for walking

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savanna

grassland was scattered trees, found in tropical regions of Africa, Australia, and south America

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stroke

damage to the brain tissue resulting from a clot blocking blood flow to the brain

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sepal

modified leaves of the outermost ring of a flower; covers and protects the flower bud before it opens

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pluripotent

capable of giving rise to any cell from a specific species.
not differentiated/specialized
found in umbilical cords, embryos
inner cell mass of a blastocyst

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multipotent

can be several types of cells

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cell differentiation

specialization

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niche

A position or role taken by a kind of organism within its community.

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steps of electrophoresis

collect sample
use centrifuge to filter out not dna stuff
PCR to make copies (process that uses helicase enzyme to unzip dna and then dna matches with corresponding bases and makes more)
restriction enzymes to cut out specific gene
each DNA sample mixed with dye
use pipette to collect DNA
put in wells of neutrally charged agarose gel
separated by size


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how plasmids work

ring shape of dna inserted with gene
sticky ends form
transcription and translation

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vector

transfers genetic info into a cell

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Jean Baptiste Lamarck

French naturalist.
Lamarkism - the idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime in to its offspring.

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Peter and Rosemary Grant

A married couple. Noted for their work concerning Darwins finches on the Galapagos Islands. Spend much time capturing, tagging, and taking blood samples of the finches on the island.

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catastrophism

The theory that the earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. contrary to gradualism (uniformionitarism)

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australopithecus

and extinct genus of hominids. From the evidence gathered by paleontologists and archaeologists, it appears that the Austro it because Jean is involved in Eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago. During this time. A number of Australopithecus species emerged. archaeologists and paleontologist widely hold of the Australopithecus please significant part in human evolution, being the first of the hominids to show presence of a gene that causes increase length and ability of neurons in the brain

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archaeologists and paleontologist widely hold this hominid to be the to have played a significant part in human evolution, being the first of the hominids to show presence of a gene that causes increase length and ability of neurons in the brain

australopithecus

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hominid from 3.5 million years ago
habitually up right posture

australopithecus

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homo habilis

1.44 million years ago, last protruding face than the Australopithecus, first to use stone tools. larger cranial capacity but slightly less than modern humans

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homo erectus

and extinct species of hominid that lived throughout most of the pleistocene, 1.9 million years ago. larger brain volume.

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homo neanderthalensis

differing from modern DNA in humans by only 0.12%

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order of hominids

australopithecus, Homo habilis, homo erectus, homo neanderthalensis, homo sapiens

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biotic

alive
organisms

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abiotic

not alive
temperature

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ecological succession

The observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community overtime. The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops their increasingly complex until it becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community. The cause of ecosystem change is the impact of established species upon their own environments. A consequence of living in the sometimes subtle and sometimes overt alteration of one's own environment

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structure of neurons

most of neurons share several common features. A typical neuron has a cell body that houses the neurons nucleus and most of the organelles. Two types of fibers project from the cell body. Fibers called dendrites receive signals and carry them towards the neuron cell body. A fiber called the axon carries electrical impulses away from the cell body and towards other cells. The end of the axon forms a clump of knob branches that play a role in transmitting messages to other neurons are other cells. To some neurons are very long axons

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dendrites

receive signals and carry them towards the neurons cell body

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axon

carries electrical impulses away from the cell body and towards the other cells

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Central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal chord
bodies main information processing center.

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function of neurons

used to convey electrical signals throughout the body.

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peripheral nervous system (PNS)

all the nervous tissue outside the central nervous system makes it out. Delivers information to the central nervous system and carries messages from the central nervous system to other organs through communication lines called nerves.

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nerve

insists of one or more bundles of neuron fibers surrounded by connective tissue. The PNS and then CNS together carry out three main functions. Different types of neurons are involved in each function

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stimulus

The peripheral nervous system receives information about an environmental change (stimulus)

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examples of stimuli

The colors of the sunset, a change in temperature, I tap on the shoulder

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what type of neurons carry information about the stimuli to the central nervous system

sensory neurons

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sensory receptors

some sensory neurons to text anyone directly, such as the neurons that sounds pain. The most stimuli are received by highly specialized cells called sensory receptors

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sensory imput

first, the PNS receives information about environmental change
Stimuli , sensory neurons, sensory receptors

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integration

CNS interprets the information. Involves neurons located entirely within the CNS, which are called interneurons.

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motor output

The CNS orders a response, perhaps instructing a muscle to contract or glands to secrete hormone. Neurons that carry such signals away from the CNS are called the motor neurons

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reflex acr

The nervous system pathway that regulates a reflex

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myelin sheath

A second coat of material that the axons of many neurons are insulated by

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nodes

Mylène cheese three assembles a chain of oblong the beads. Between the beads are on insulated space is called nodes. Electrical signals cannot travel along the axon where it is insulated by my lawn. Instead, the signal must jump from node tonode

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10% rule

specifically refers to energy transfer in a food chain. According to the rule, only 10% of energy is transferred to the next level of the food chain. Out of the remaining 90%, some is used up Metabolically for survival and the rest is lost in body heat.

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chromatography

The collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid, which carries it through a structure holding another material called sanitation phase. The purpose of chromatography is to separate the components of the mixture for more advanced use

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pedigree

recorded ancestry

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karyotype

The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in a cell nuclei of an organism or species

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dna sequencing

The process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule

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protein used in blood clotting

factor 8

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iPS
induced pluripotent stem cell

due to the ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells, scientists have searched for ways to reprogram adult somatic cells. Studies of cell fusion, in which differentiated adult somatic cells grown in culture with embryonic stem cells fused with the stem cell and acquire embryonic stem cell like properties, like the idea that specific genes could reprogram into pluripotent stem cells

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MicroSort

choosing the gender of the child
I gender selection method which uses a cell sorter, based on the fact that sperm with a Y chromosome are lighter than a sperm with an X-chromosome

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Agrobacterium

genius of gram-negative bacteria established by HJ con that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants.

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craig venter

he is known for being one of the first to sequence the human genome

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human genome

The complete set of genetic information for humans

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sex linkage

text linkages the phenotype expression of an allowable related to the chromosomal sex of the individual.

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francis collins

an American physicist/geneticist noted for his discoveries of disease genes and his leadership of the human genome project. He is the director of the national Institute of health

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jesse gelsinger

The first person publicly identified having died in a clinical trial for gene therapy

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gene therapy

The use of DNA as a drug to treat disease by delivering therapeutic DNA into a patient's cells. Meant to replace a mutated gene

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liposome

a vector

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southern blot

procedure for identifying specific sequences of DNA, in which fragments separated on a gel or transferred directly to a second medium on which direction by hybridization may be carried out

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thrombin

enzyme in blood plasma that causes the clotting of blood by converting fibrogen to fibrin

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sex linked colorblindness

effects a significant percentage of the population. a deficiency of color vision. faults in the development of one or more sets of retinal cones that receive color and light and transmit the information into the optic nerve

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gene expression

The appearance in a phenotype of a characteristic or fact attributed to a particular gene

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synapse

The junction between these knobs and another cell is called a synapse

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synaptic cleft

and a chemical synapse, the nerve signal must be transmitted across the tiny space called the synaptic cleft

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neurotransmitters

medical signal mostly consists of small, nitrogen containing organic compounds called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are contained in tiny vesicles, or socks, and the axons knobs. When the action potential reaches the knob, it causes the vesicle to release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap and reaches the receiving neuron. Receptor molecules on the receiving neuron membrane accept the neurotransmitter

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important neurotransmitters

epinephrine
norepinephrine
serotonin
dopamine

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epinephrine and norepinephrine also function as..

hormones

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which neurotransmitters in the brain trigger changes that affect sleep, mood, attention, and the learning.

serotonin and dopamine

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an example of a low levels of search engine neurotransmitters in the brain

researchers are finding that in balances of certain neurotransmitters in the brain are associated with various kinds of mental illnesses. For example, low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine appear to be linked with depression.

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what does Fluoxetine (prozac) do

blocks the removal of serotonin from the synaptic cleft. This increases the amount of serotonin available to receiving neurons.

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how does Depression affects the nervous system

chronic fatigue, decreased interest in sex, decreased appetite, insomnia