Flashcards in FINAL 2 Deck (121):
small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the much larger bacterial chromosome, used as vectors to insert DNA
gene carriers to insert DNA during genetic engineering (plasmid, viruses, liposomes)
cutting tools used for making recombinant DNA or DNA profiles (protects bacteria against viruses)
single stranded ends of the DNA and are used to join together the fragments created by restriction enzymes
labeled complementary piece of nucleic acid used to find a specific gene within a mass of DNA (during southern blots)
what is genetic engineering
insertion or modification of genes to produce desired proteins
formed when two fragments of DNA cut by the same restriction enzyme come together, and join by base pairing
what is gel electrophoresis?
electric gradient moves DNA through agarose gel creating readable pattern of DNA fragments
which moves faster and electrophoresis: small or large fragments?
small move faster
is DNA positively or negatively charged?
IN electrophoresis DNA moves toward the blank electrode
tool that copies DNA pieces quickly
uses for DNA profiling
solves crimes (rape/murder) identify bodies, identify paternity, diagnose genetic diseases
enzyme needed in PCR
steps to add a gene to a bacteria
main goal- deliberately remove genetic material from one organism and insert it into a bacteria
form genetic clones
step one – Gene is identified by a probe
step two – Gene is cut using restriction enzyme
step three - cut plasmid using same restriction enzyme
step four - insert gene into a plasmid, sticky ends fuse
step five – plasmid inserts gene into a bacteria
step six – bacteria makes desired protein
proteins produced by genetically engineered bacteria
insulin, factor 8, cellulase, "snow" protein
uses probes to bind to DNA bands in gel to make a permanent Xray image of DNA profile
steps of DNA profile (fingerprints)
collect DNA/cell sample
extract DNA from cell and purify
copy DNA with PCR
Cut DNA with restriction enzymes
sort DNA pieces with electrophoresis
tag DNA bands with probe
make permanent with Southern blot
sources of DNA in a fingerprint
gel of electrophoresis
human genome project
International project that found the DNA code of humans
the heads of the human genome project
creator of fast way to sequence a gene using computers
uses electrophoresis to find the order of the bases of a gene/piece of DNA
small ball of lipids with a gene inside that acts as a vector to insert DNA during engineering
process using vector to put a gene into another life form
technique used to separate molecules (dyes) using paper and solvent (water)
an organism with a new gene inserted into it/GMO
GMO stands for
genetically modified organism
any process that uses restriction enzymes to alter DNA
the use of organisms to preform practical tasks for humans
Applications that analyze and manipulate the genomes of organisms on the molecular level
recombinant DNA technology
combines genes from different sources, even different species, into a single DNA molecule.
why are genomes important?
knowledgeable genomes can lead to useful applications. For example, sequencing the genomes of rice could lead to new ways of making it a more nutritious food source
The haploid set of chromosomes and again the microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
I Teknika that makes copies of certain segments of DNA without using living cells
can generate 100 billion identical molecules in just a few hours
can copy one specific segment from within a tremendous length of dna
steps of pcr making copies
heat is added to separate strands
The mixture is cooled and primers bind to strands
DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to strands producing two daughter molecules
process is repeated
short strands of DNA the pair with unknown sequence in the target DNA
where are restriction enzymes found in nature
protect the bacteria against intruding DNA from other organisms and phages
which food items stores the most calories per gram? Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins
which enzyme breaks down protein in the stomach
A group of living tissues working together to perform one function are collectively called a
you inhale so yourselves can break down what during what
structure of a neuron
cell body that houses the neurons nucleus and most of the organelles
two types of fibers protect from the cell body (dendrites and axon)
examples of genetically altered bacteria
a version of human insulin gene and inserted it into the bacteria Escherichia coli to produce synthetic human insulin
clotting factors to treat hemophilia
HGH (human growth hormone) to treat dwarfism
examples of genetically modified plants
tomato with fish genes to not frost
corn that is resistant to pesticides
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
manually come binding egg and sperm in a leftish. Transfer embryos into the. Bad because overrides the body's natural desires. Makes multiple embryos. Implants 3 to 5 embryos. Hopefully one in beds into that endometrium. woman must take lots of hormones to mature eggs.
preimplantation generic diagnosis (PGD)
make multiple embryos to implant healthy one
immature egg cell
not a sex cell
somatic nuclear transfer
dolly the sheep
fertilized egg, take out nucleus of somatic cell, put in somatic cell nucleus into fertilized egg that has the nucleus taken out of, egg cell divides to make babies, tumors are already shortened.
uses only two legs for walking
grassland was scattered trees, found in tropical regions of Africa, Australia, and south America
damage to the brain tissue resulting from a clot blocking blood flow to the brain
modified leaves of the outermost ring of a flower; covers and protects the flower bud before it opens
capable of giving rise to any cell from a specific species.
found in umbilical cords, embryos
inner cell mass of a blastocyst
can be several types of cells
A position or role taken by a kind of organism within its community.
steps of electrophoresis
use centrifuge to filter out not dna stuff
PCR to make copies (process that uses helicase enzyme to unzip dna and then dna matches with corresponding bases and makes more)
restriction enzymes to cut out specific gene
each DNA sample mixed with dye
use pipette to collect DNA
put in wells of neutrally charged agarose gel
separated by size
how plasmids work
ring shape of dna inserted with gene
sticky ends form
transcription and translation
transfers genetic info into a cell
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Lamarkism - the idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime in to its offspring.
Peter and Rosemary Grant
A married couple. Noted for their work concerning Darwins finches on the Galapagos Islands. Spend much time capturing, tagging, and taking blood samples of the finches on the island.
The theory that the earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. contrary to gradualism (uniformionitarism)
and extinct genus of hominids. From the evidence gathered by paleontologists and archaeologists, it appears that the Austro it because Jean is involved in Eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago. During this time. A number of Australopithecus species emerged. archaeologists and paleontologist widely hold of the Australopithecus please significant part in human evolution, being the first of the hominids to show presence of a gene that causes increase length and ability of neurons in the brain
archaeologists and paleontologist widely hold this hominid to be the to have played a significant part in human evolution, being the first of the hominids to show presence of a gene that causes increase length and ability of neurons in the brain
hominid from 3.5 million years ago
habitually up right posture
1.44 million years ago, last protruding face than the Australopithecus, first to use stone tools. larger cranial capacity but slightly less than modern humans
and extinct species of hominid that lived throughout most of the pleistocene, 1.9 million years ago. larger brain volume.
differing from modern DNA in humans by only 0.12%
order of hominids
australopithecus, Homo habilis, homo erectus, homo neanderthalensis, homo sapiens
The observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community overtime. The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops their increasingly complex until it becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community. The cause of ecosystem change is the impact of established species upon their own environments. A consequence of living in the sometimes subtle and sometimes overt alteration of one's own environment
structure of neurons
most of neurons share several common features. A typical neuron has a cell body that houses the neurons nucleus and most of the organelles. Two types of fibers project from the cell body. Fibers called dendrites receive signals and carry them towards the neuron cell body. A fiber called the axon carries electrical impulses away from the cell body and towards other cells. The end of the axon forms a clump of knob branches that play a role in transmitting messages to other neurons are other cells. To some neurons are very long axons
receive signals and carry them towards the neurons cell body
carries electrical impulses away from the cell body and towards the other cells
Central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal chord
bodies main information processing center.
function of neurons
used to convey electrical signals throughout the body.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
all the nervous tissue outside the central nervous system makes it out. Delivers information to the central nervous system and carries messages from the central nervous system to other organs through communication lines called nerves.
insists of one or more bundles of neuron fibers surrounded by connective tissue. The PNS and then CNS together carry out three main functions. Different types of neurons are involved in each function
The peripheral nervous system receives information about an environmental change (stimulus)
examples of stimuli
The colors of the sunset, a change in temperature, I tap on the shoulder
what type of neurons carry information about the stimuli to the central nervous system
some sensory neurons to text anyone directly, such as the neurons that sounds pain. The most stimuli are received by highly specialized cells called sensory receptors
first, the PNS receives information about environmental change
Stimuli , sensory neurons, sensory receptors
CNS interprets the information. Involves neurons located entirely within the CNS, which are called interneurons.
The CNS orders a response, perhaps instructing a muscle to contract or glands to secrete hormone. Neurons that carry such signals away from the CNS are called the motor neurons
The nervous system pathway that regulates a reflex
A second coat of material that the axons of many neurons are insulated by
Mylène cheese three assembles a chain of oblong the beads. Between the beads are on insulated space is called nodes. Electrical signals cannot travel along the axon where it is insulated by my lawn. Instead, the signal must jump from node tonode
specifically refers to energy transfer in a food chain. According to the rule, only 10% of energy is transferred to the next level of the food chain. Out of the remaining 90%, some is used up Metabolically for survival and the rest is lost in body heat.
The collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid, which carries it through a structure holding another material called sanitation phase. The purpose of chromatography is to separate the components of the mixture for more advanced use
The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in a cell nuclei of an organism or species
The process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule
protein used in blood clotting
induced pluripotent stem cell
due to the ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells, scientists have searched for ways to reprogram adult somatic cells. Studies of cell fusion, in which differentiated adult somatic cells grown in culture with embryonic stem cells fused with the stem cell and acquire embryonic stem cell like properties, like the idea that specific genes could reprogram into pluripotent stem cells
choosing the gender of the child
I gender selection method which uses a cell sorter, based on the fact that sperm with a Y chromosome are lighter than a sperm with an X-chromosome
genius of gram-negative bacteria established by HJ con that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants.
he is known for being one of the first to sequence the human genome
The complete set of genetic information for humans
text linkages the phenotype expression of an allowable related to the chromosomal sex of the individual.
an American physicist/geneticist noted for his discoveries of disease genes and his leadership of the human genome project. He is the director of the national Institute of health
The first person publicly identified having died in a clinical trial for gene therapy
The use of DNA as a drug to treat disease by delivering therapeutic DNA into a patient's cells. Meant to replace a mutated gene
procedure for identifying specific sequences of DNA, in which fragments separated on a gel or transferred directly to a second medium on which direction by hybridization may be carried out
enzyme in blood plasma that causes the clotting of blood by converting fibrogen to fibrin
sex linked colorblindness
effects a significant percentage of the population. a deficiency of color vision. faults in the development of one or more sets of retinal cones that receive color and light and transmit the information into the optic nerve
The appearance in a phenotype of a characteristic or fact attributed to a particular gene
The junction between these knobs and another cell is called a synapse
and a chemical synapse, the nerve signal must be transmitted across the tiny space called the synaptic cleft
medical signal mostly consists of small, nitrogen containing organic compounds called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are contained in tiny vesicles, or socks, and the axons knobs. When the action potential reaches the knob, it causes the vesicle to release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap and reaches the receiving neuron. Receptor molecules on the receiving neuron membrane accept the neurotransmitter
epinephrine and norepinephrine also function as..
which neurotransmitters in the brain trigger changes that affect sleep, mood, attention, and the learning.
serotonin and dopamine
an example of a low levels of search engine neurotransmitters in the brain
researchers are finding that in balances of certain neurotransmitters in the brain are associated with various kinds of mental illnesses. For example, low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine appear to be linked with depression.
what does Fluoxetine (prozac) do
blocks the removal of serotonin from the synaptic cleft. This increases the amount of serotonin available to receiving neurons.