Ballast Ch 1 Part 1 Information Gathering Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ballast Ch 1 Part 1 Information Gathering Deck (55):



Collecting and analyzing information about a problem and forming a clear statement to be used as a basis for design.


Programming is problem ____________, whereas design is problem ______________.

Analysis, Synthesis


What 7 things should the program analysis include?

Analysis of the existing builindg

Aesthetic considerations

Adjacency requirements

Organizing concepts

Code review

Budget requirements

Scheduling requirements


What is the five-step programming process, and what are the 4 major considerations it takes in to account?

It is the process of establishingn goals, collecting and analysing facts, uncovering and testing concepts, determining needs and stating the problem in relation to Form, Function, Economy and Time


Five-Step Process:

What is the purpose of establishing goals?

They establish the directions of programmatic concepts that ultimately direct the means of achieving the goals.


Five=Step Process:

What is the purpose of collecting and analysing facts?

To determing existing conditions of the space, number of people to be accomadated, space adajencies, user characteristics, equipment needs, expected growth rate, money available for construction and furnishings, code requirements, and to organize them in a usable way.


Five-Step Process:

Why do you need to uncover and test concepts?

This is the means of determining the direction of the design by doing several rough sketches or bubble diagrams to show adjacencies, etc from which the owner can select what will best solve the problem.


What is the difference between a programmatic concept and a design concept?

A programmatic concept is a performance requirement related to methods of solving a problem or satisfying a need.

A design concept is a specific physical response that attempts to achieve a programmatic concept.


Five-Step Process:

What is the function of determining needs?

To balance what the client wants with what the client actually needs since most clients want more than they can afford.


Five-Step Process: 

What is a problem statement?

A bridge between programming and the design process.  It describes the most important aspects of the problem and serves as a basis for design and the criteria for making sure the design solves the problem.

There should be a minimum of four problem statements - one for each of the four major considerations: Form, Function, Economy and Time


Form, Function, Economy & Time:

What does Form relate to?

The existing conditions in a space, the psychological environment of the interior, and the quality of construction.


Form, Function, Economy & Time:

What does Function relate to?

The people using the space, the activities performed there and the relationships of spaces to each other.


Form, Function, Economy & Time:

What does Economy relate to?

The initial cost of the interior, operating costs & life cycle costs.


Form, Function, Economy & Time:

What does Time relate to?

Time describes the ideas of past, present and future as they affect the other three considerations.



Programmatic Concepts: 

Describe priority as a programmatic concept.

Establishes the order of importance of things such as size, position or social values.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe hierarchy as a programmatic concept.

Relates to the excercise of authority and is expressed in physical symbols of authority - i.e.: senior members of a firm have a larger office or a corner office.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe character as a programmatic concept.

Character is a response to the image a client wants to portray.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe denisity as a programmatic concept.

Can be low, medium or high. 

Relates to how a space or group of spaces are used.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe service groupings as a programmatic concept.

Service groupings include mechanical and other spaces that support the use of the space.

i.e.: Distribution ofo supplies, storage space, information and vending areas.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe activity groupings as a programmatic concept.

States whether activieties should be integrates or separated andn compartmentalized.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe people groupings as a programmatic concept.

States the degree of massing within a space - is derived from the physical, social an demoitional characteristics of the group.



Programmatic Concepts:

Describe home base as a programmatic concept.

Relates to the concept of territoriality - a place where a person can maintain their individuality.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe home base as a programmatic concept.

Included the affinities of people and activities. It most directly affects the organization of spaces and rooms.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe communications as a programmatic concept.

States who communicates with whom and how they do it.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe neighbors as a programmatic concept.

This concept refers to how the project will promote or prevent socialbility, and how it will relate to its neighboring spaces.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe accessibility as a programmatic concept.

Accessibility relates to the idea of entry to a building or space and to making the facility accessible tot he disables.  It answers the question of how people can find the entrance and whether there should be multiple entrances.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe separated flow as a programmatic concept.

Relates to keeping the flow of people or services separated from each other


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe mixed flow as a programmatic concept.

Promotes interaction among people. Not as controlled an environment


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe sequential flow as a programmatic concept.

Required where a specific series of envents or processesis required.

i.e.: a factory line


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe orientation flow as a programmatic concept.

Providing a point of reference within a bulding or space to keep people from feeling lost.

i.e.: a central atrium in a large building


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe flexibility flow as a programmatic concept.

Includes three components:

expandability, converibility and vesatility

which relate to the way a space can accommodate growth, allow for changes in function, and provide for multi-functioning for different activities.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe tolerance as a programmatic concept.

Allow space for a dynamic activity

i.e. provide extra space around a pool for future bleachers rather than just the circulation needed.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe safety as a programmatic concept.

Focuses on life safety - building codes are closely tied to this one.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe security controls as a programmatic concept.

Refers to way people and property can be protected


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe energy conservation as a programmatic concept.

Using recycled or recyclable materials, keeping heat flow or heated areas to a minumum, or using materials produced using low energy means.


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe environmental controls as a programmatic concept.

Included mechanical systems and natural means for climate control


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe phasing as a programmatic concept.

Determines if the project should be completed in phases either for time or cost control


Programmatic Concepts:

Describe cost control as a programmatic concept.

Tries to establish a realistic preview of costs and a balanced budget.


What trhee things should every programming document contain?

Statement of goals and objectives

List of client requirements

List of spaces and SF


What is anthropometrics?

Measurement of the size, proportions and range of motion of the human body.


What is static anthropometrics?

dyanimic anthromotetrics?

Measurments of the human body at rest.

Measurements of the body in motion.


What is the study of the relationship between human physiology and the physical environment?



What are three ways the body loses heat?

Convection, evaporation and radiation


What is convection?

Transfer of heat thru the movement of a fluid. Occurs when the air temperature is less than a person's body temperature.



What is evaporation?

Heat loss when moisture changes to vapor as a person perspires or breathes.


What is radiation?

The transfer of heat energy through electromagnetic waves from one surface to a colder surface.


What is conduction?

The transfer of heat thru direct contact.


What determines thermal comfort?

What is this called?

Air temperature, humidity, air movement and radiation.

Effective Temperature


What is the Mean Radiant Temperature?

The average of the vaious surface temperatures in a room,the angle of exposure of the occupant to those surfaces and  any sunlight present.


Human needs are divided into two main groups: deficiency needs and growht needs.  What is this refered to?

What is the basic concept of this theory?

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

The most basic needs (food, water, minimal bodily comfort) must be met before a person moves to the next level of satisfaction.


What is a behavior setting?

A place with definable boundaries in which a standing pattern of behavior occurs at a particular time.


Define territoriality

Refers to people's need to lay claim to a space as their own - often refered to as Home Base


What is proxemics?

It describes the interrelated obserations and theories of humans' use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture.




What are the names of the four distances refered to, and what are the distances?

Intimate Distance - 0" - 18"

Personal Distance: 18" - 4'

Social Distance: 4'- 12'

Public Distance: Greater than 12'