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Flashcards in Basic Laboratory Testing Deck (116)
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91

in what sex is creatinine more elevated?

its related to muscle mass, so young men or people with high meat diets. As people age so does muscle mass, creatinine is relatively stable in life.

92

what is BUN

by-product from the breakdown of protein. the serum [ ] is directly proportional to its rate of production minues the rate of renal removal.

93

when is BUN low?

with low protein diets, or sever liver disease

94

what is cystatin C?

low molecular weight protein present in nucleated cells, - its testing is very expensive, and therefore usually used as a reflex for samples with high serum creatinine values.

95

what is GFR measuring?

the volume of blood that the kidney filters per minute. is usually estimate in our calculations, the lower the value the worst the disease. It can also be calculated using cystatin C.

96

when does albumin decrease? when does albumin increase?

decrease: starvation and cirrhosis.
increase: dehydration.

97

what is bilirubin?

the breakdown product of the heme in hemoglobin. Heme is converted to bilirubin in the liver

98

what is a concern with ^ bilirubin?

d/t liver disease or obstruction. If its isolated finding usually d/t genetic defect.

99

what is globulin?

the fraction of blood that includes the immunoglobulines, or antibodies. high levels indicate acute or chronic infection, myeloma or recently cleared infection.

100

how is globulin calculated?

subtracting the albumin from the total protein.

101

what is myeloma?

cancer of the plasma cells. identified by the antibodies monoclonal and polyclonal.

102

what is uric acid?

metabolite product from the oxidation of purine bases. high values associated with renal disease, hypertension, gout and use of thiazide diuretics.

103

what is included in a CBC "differential"?

red cell count, white cell count (lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes), platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in g/dL.

104

why is it important for the uw to note the absolute count on a differential ?

relative number of cells present can be normal, white the absolute count is abnormal. This occurs in anemia and hematological cancers.

105

What is PSA? when are its levels increase?

a protein produced by the prostate. Increased in BPH, and in inflammation (prostatitis).

106

what are the two forms of PSA in serum?

free and bound. the total SPA is the sum of the two.

107

What is carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ?

is produced by many solid tumors.

108

when would you run a CEA test?

after cancer tx, if their dx was associated with CEA elevations.

109

why do we not use CEA typically in insurance screening?

high number of false positives, and if its very high, no cure of any tumor found is generally possible.

110

what is BRCA?

chest x-ray marker associated with increased risk of development of breast and ovarian cancer.

111

what is Ca-19-9?

marker for gastrointestinal cancer

112

what is alpha fetoprotein (AFP)?

marker for liver and germ cell cancer

113

what is beta chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)?

marker for germ cell cancer

114

what is a benefit of genetic testing?

clinically determine course of tx and the probability of outcomes for various cancers. None is used in u/w currently.

115

why is there no set/ standard expected or reference range values?

1. individual insurance companies have different cut offs.
2. individual labratory normal ranges vary.

116

elevations in GGT and AP are associate with pancreatitis or biliary obstruction?

biliary obstruction