Flashcards in Bates Geriatric with Review stuff she said in class Deck (81)
____________ are less influential on myocardial contraction/
What is S3 after 40y/o due to?
heart failure from volume overload in left ventricle (coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy or valvular disease, such as mitral regurg)
When is S4 present in healthy older people?
Possible ventricular compliance and impaired ventricular filling; HTN
What is the most common murmur of elderly?
Systolic aortic murmur
How does aging affect aortic cusps?
Causes fibrous tissue which leads to calcification and audible vibrations
What is the difference between aortic sclerosis and aortic stenosis?
Sclerosis has fibrosis and calcification that doesn't impede blood flow; stenosis has calcified and immobile aortic valve leaflets that cause outflow obstruction
What is the best to determine it is aortic sclerosis and not aortic stenosis?
There can be a brisk carotid upstroke due to delayed upstroke
What are people with an aortic sclerosis or aortic stenosis at higher risks for?
CV morbidity and mortality
What is mitral regurgitation?
Calcification of mitral valve ring which impedes normal valve closure during systole
Is loss of arterial pulsations typical?
No, it isn't typical and needs careful evaluation
If an older adult male has abdominal or lower back pain, smokes, and has coronary disease, what is he at higher risk for?
What can giant cell or temporal arteritis lead to?
Loss of vision and complaints of HA and jaw claudication
How does aging affect the symptoms of acute abdominal disease?
Blunts symptoms: pain is less severe, fever is less prounounced, signs of peritoneal inflammation (muscle guarding or rebound tenderness) may diminish or are absent
What are some changes with aging seen in male genitalia?
Decreased testosterone, erections depend on touch not erotic cues, penis shrinks, testicles drop further into scrotum, pubic hair decreases/grays
What is the top cause of ED?
What age do menstrual periods stop?
What is BPH?
Benign prostate hyperplasia; proliferation of epithelial and stromal tissue
When does BPH start?
Symptoms of BPH
hesistancy, dribbling, incomplete emptying
What is sarcopenia?
loss of lean body mass and strength with aging
difficulty recalling names of people or objects or certain details of specific events
What can delirium in the elderly be a clue for?
Infection or problems with medications
What are normal CNS findings in elderly, that would be abnormal in young people?
changes in hearing, vision, extraocular movements and pupillary size, shape, reactivity
What is the difference between a benign tremor and parkisonian tumor?
Benign tremors are slightly faster and disappear at rest; are not associated with muscle rigidity
Where do older adults frequently lose some or all vibratory sense?
feet and ankles
What type of hearing do most elderly lose?
high tone discrimination
What is the hyperthyroidism symptom triad in pts 50+?
fatigue, weight loss, and tachycardia
What are characteristics of geriatric syndromes?
multifactorial origin, typically older/frail adults, precipitated by acute event, episodic, followed by functional decline (collection of symptoms and signs common in older adults not necessarily related to a specific disease)
What are examples of geriatric syndromes?
delirium, cognitive impairment, falls, dizziness, depression, urinary incontinence, functional impairments