Screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm area that might indicate cancer
Digital rectal exam (DRE)
Self-examination of the testes for abnormal lumps or swellings in the scrotal sac.
Test to determine the presence of pathogens in the blood stream
Series of tests that includes hemoglobin: hematocrit: RBC, WBC, and platelet counts; differential WBC count; RBC indices and RBC and WBC morphology
complete blood count (CBC)
Test that enumerates the distribution of the WBC's in a stained blood smear by counting the different kinds of WBCs and reporting each as percentage of the total examined. Commonly used as a first step in diagnosing a disease.
Differential count (diff)
Measurement of the distance RBCs settle to the bottom of a test tube under standardized condition; also called sed rate. Elevated ESR is associated w/ inflammatory diseases, cancer, and pregnancy, but decreases in liver dz.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Measurement of the amoutn of hemoglobin found in awhile blood sample. Hgb values decrease in anemia and increase in dehydration, polycythemia vera and thrombocytopenia purpura.
Hemoglobin (Hgb) value
Measurement of the percentage of RBC's in a whole blood sample
Non specific rapid serological test for infectious mononucleosis; also called the heterophile antibody test
Test that measures the length of time it takes blood to clot. It screens for deficiencies of some clotting factors and monitors the effectiveness of anticoagulant (heparin) therapy; also called activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
Partial thromboplastin tissue (PTT)
Test that measures the time it takes for the plasma portion of blood to clot. It is used to evaluate portions of the coagulation system; also called pro time. Commonly used to manage patients receiving the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin)
Prothormbin time (PT)
Mathematical calculation of the size, volume, and concentration of hemoglobin for an RBC.
Red blood cell (RBC) indices
Test used to assess the absorption rate of radioactive vitamin B12 by the digestive system. Definitive test for diagnosing pernicious anemia because vitamin B12 isn't absorbed in this disorder and passes out of the stool.
Radiographic examination of lymph nodes after injection of a contrast medium
Endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growth, and removal or polyps.
Endoscopy of the kidney(s) using a specialized, three-channel endoscope that enables visualization and irrigation of the kidney.
Endoscopy of the urethra using a specialized endoscope, typically for lithotripsy or TURP
Test that determines the amount of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, present in a blood sample (used as an indicator of kidney function)
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Test that determine the causative organism of a disease and how the organism respond to various antibodies.
Culture and sensitivity (C&S)
Blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostatic cancer (level is elevated in prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and tumors of the prostate)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization after a vasectomy.
Battery of tests performed on a urine specimen, including physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
Imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
Computed tomography (CT)
Transfusion prepared from another individual who blood is compatible with that of the recipient
Procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling using saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter.
Radiographic examination of the kidneys, and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography (EU)
Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
Radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in the relationship to other organs int he abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urinary system (no contrast medium required)
Kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB) radiography
Radiographic examination of lymph vessels of tissues after injection
Drawing in or out by suction
procedure using a syringe with a thin aspirating needle inserted (usually in the pelvic bone and rarely the sternum) to withdraw a small sample of bone marrow fluid for microscopic evaluation.
Bone marrow aspiration