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Flashcards in Midterm - Med Term Deck (18)
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1

electroencephalography (EEG)

Recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses

2

electromyography (EMG)

recoring of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess nerve damage

In an EMG, an electrode inserted into a muscle records impusles and displays them on a monitor called an oscilloscope

3

lumbar puncture

needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radioopaque substances) to be injected; also called spinal puncture or spinal tap

4

nerve conduction velocity (NCV)

test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve; in NCV, one electrode stimulates a nerve while other electrodes, placed over different areas of the nerve record an electrical signal as it travels through the nerve; this test is used for diagnosing muscular dystrophy and neurological disorders that destroy myelin

5

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis

series of chemical, microscopic, and microbial tests used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemorrhage

6

angiography

radiography of the blood vessels after introduction of contrast medium; used to visualize vascular abnormalities

7

cerebral angiography

angiography of blood vessels of the brain after injection of a contrast medium; also called cerebral arteriography; identifies vascular tumors, aneurysms, and occlusions

8

computed tomography (CT)

imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned an dmeasuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles

9

myelography

diagnostic radiological examination of the spinal canal, nerve roots, and spinal cord after injection of contrast medium into the spinal canal; usually performed in conjunction with CT and when an MRI is not possible

10

positron emission tomography (PET)

scan using CT to record the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produce a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease; used to diagnose disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease

11

ultrasonography

imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor

12

echoencephalography

ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain

13

cryosurgery

technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it; somtimes used to destroy malignant tumors of the brain

14

stereotaxic radiosurgery

precise method of locating and destroying sharply circumscribed lesions on specific, tiny areas of pathological tissue in deep-seated structures of the CNS; used in treatment of seizure disorders, aneurysms, brain tumors

15

thalamotomy

partial destructino of the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements, or emotional disturbanes

16

tractotomy

transection of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord; somtimes used to relieve intractable pain

17

trephination

technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure

18

vagotomy

interruption of the function of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulcer; performed when ulcers in the stomach and duodenum do not respond to medication or changes in diet