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Flashcards in Midterm - Med Term Deck (18)
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electroencephalography (EEG)

Recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses


electromyography (EMG)

recoring of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess nerve damage

In an EMG, an electrode inserted into a muscle records impusles and displays them on a monitor called an oscilloscope


lumbar puncture

needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radioopaque substances) to be injected; also called spinal puncture or spinal tap


nerve conduction velocity (NCV)

test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve; in NCV, one electrode stimulates a nerve while other electrodes, placed over different areas of the nerve record an electrical signal as it travels through the nerve; this test is used for diagnosing muscular dystrophy and neurological disorders that destroy myelin


cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis

series of chemical, microscopic, and microbial tests used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemorrhage



radiography of the blood vessels after introduction of contrast medium; used to visualize vascular abnormalities


cerebral angiography

angiography of blood vessels of the brain after injection of a contrast medium; also called cerebral arteriography; identifies vascular tumors, aneurysms, and occlusions


computed tomography (CT)

imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned an dmeasuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles



diagnostic radiological examination of the spinal canal, nerve roots, and spinal cord after injection of contrast medium into the spinal canal; usually performed in conjunction with CT and when an MRI is not possible


positron emission tomography (PET)

scan using CT to record the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produce a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease; used to diagnose disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease



imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor



ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain



technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it; somtimes used to destroy malignant tumors of the brain


stereotaxic radiosurgery

precise method of locating and destroying sharply circumscribed lesions on specific, tiny areas of pathological tissue in deep-seated structures of the CNS; used in treatment of seizure disorders, aneurysms, brain tumors



partial destructino of the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements, or emotional disturbanes



transection of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord; somtimes used to relieve intractable pain



technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure



interruption of the function of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulcer; performed when ulcers in the stomach and duodenum do not respond to medication or changes in diet