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Flashcards in Behavioral Disorders Deck (32):
0

What are the core neurodevelopmental domains?

Sensory and Motor Development
Language
Visual-Spatial and perceptual functioning
Memory
Attention
Executive Functioning
Intellectual Function
Social Cognition

1

This neurodevelopmental process is crucial in helping children experience, understand, and manipulate their environments and is a vital mechanism for basic survival.

Sensory development

2

Of the motor movements, which is most relevant to daily life?
a. continuous
b. discrete
c. procedural

c. procedural movements

3

What are the three forms of neuromotor abilities?

fine motor
graphomotor
gross motor coordination

4

Relates to difficulty in developing an ideomotor plan and activating coordinated and integrated visual-motor actions to complete a task or solve a motor problem, such as assembling a model

DYSPRAXIA

5

The most critical cognitive function that humans develop

Language

6

Children with this language disorder may have difficulty understanding verbal information, following instructions and explanations, and interpreting what they hear

Receptive language dysfunction


* Expressive language weaknesses can result from problems with speech as well as language.

7

term used to describe the cognitive mechanism by which information is acquired, retained, and recalled

Memory

8

The period of time (typically seconds) during which information is being held and/or manipulated for registration, and ultimately encoded, consolidated, and retained

Working Memory

Also termed immediate or short-term memory

Ability to hold, manipulate, and store information for short periods

9

The process by which information in STM is transferred into long-term memory (LTM)

Consolidation and storage

consolidation in LTM is accomplished in one or more of four ways: 1. pairing two bits of information (such as a group of letters and the English sound it represents)
2. storing procedures (consolidating new skills, such as the steps in solving mathematics problems)
3. classifying data in categories (filing all insects together in memory)
4. linking new information to established rules, patterns, or systems of organization (rule-based learning).

10

The capacity to learn from a single point in time forward

a. anterograde memory
b. retrograde memory
c. explicit memory
d. implicit memory
e. procedural memory
f. prospective memory

a. Anterograde memory

11

Subconscious recall: no awareness that the memory system is being activated

a. anterograde memory
b. retrograde memory
c. explicit memory
d. implicit memory
e. procedural memory
f. prospective memor

D. implicit memory

12

Conscious awareness of recall
a. anterograde memory
b. retrograde memory
c. explicit memory
d. implicit memory
e. procedural memory
f. prospective memor

C. explicit memory

13

Memory for how to do things
a. anterograde memory
b. retrograde memory
c. explicit memory
d. implicit memory
e. procedural memory
f. prospective memory

E. procedural memory

14

Remembering to remember
a. anterograde memory
b. retrograde memory
c. explicit memory
d. implicit memory
e. procedural memory
f. prospective memory

F. prospective memory

15

Capacity to recall information that was already learned
a. anterograde memory
b. retrograde memory
c. explicit memory
d. implicit memory
e. procedural memory
f. prospective memory

B. retrograde memory

16

Subdomains of attention

Selective attention - ability to focus attention to a particular stimulus and to discriminate relevant from irrelevant information

Divided attention - the ability to orient to more than one stimulus at a given time

Sustained attention - the ability to maintain one's focus

Alternating attention - the capacity to shift focus between stimuli

17

An umbrella term used to describe specific cognitive processes involved in regulating, guiding, organizing, and monitoring of one's thoughts and actions to achieve a specific goal

Executive functioning

18

What are diagonitic criteria for ADHD?

Either 1 or 2
1. 6 (or more) of 9 symptoms of inattention, persisting for >= 6 mos
2. 6 (or more) of 9 symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, persisting for >= 6 mos



PLUS
Symptoms existed before age 7 yrs
Present in 2 or more settings
Evidence of significant impairment in social, academic, occupational functioning
Not occuring exclusively during the course of a PDD, schizophrenia or psychotic disorder

19

What are the criteria for intellectual disability?

significantly subaverage intellectual function

significant impairments in adaptive function

onset before 18 years of age

20

What are the three symptom domains of autistic spectrum disorder?

1. social interaction
2. communication
3. developmentally appropriate behavior, interests, or activities

21

Hallmarks of Autistic Disorder (2)

*Aberrant development of social skills
*Impaired ability to engage in reciprocal social interactions

22

Diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder

At least 6 items from all symptom domains

1. Social Interaction (at least 2)
2. Communication (at least 1)
3. Stereotyped patterns of behavior (at least 1)

Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years: (1) social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication, or (3) symbolic or imaginative play.

Not better accounted for by Rett's Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

23

Gold standard diagnostic tools for Autistic Disorder

Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised (ADI-R)

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)

24

Medical conditions associated with Autistic Disorder

Seizures
Sensory deficits (visual/hearing impairment)
Others:
fragile-X, Prader-Willi, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, Rett's, and Angelman's syndromes, fetal alcohol syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, congenital rubella, or untreated phenylketonuria

25

20% of children with AD have macrocephaly

True or False?

True

enlarged head size might not be apparent until after the 2nd yr of life

In the absence of dysmorphic features or focal neurologic signs, additional neuroimaging for investigation of macrocephaly is not usually indicated

Children with AD show an abnormally rapid increase in head circumference from 6-14 mo of age, increased brain volume in 2-4 yr olds, increased volume of the cerebellum, cerebrum, and amygdala, and marked abnormal growth in the frontal, temporal, cerebellar, and limbic regions of the brain

26

Male:Female ratio of Autistic Disorder

4:1

27

Male:Female ratio of Asperger Disorder

5:1

28

Early signs of PDD

unusual use of language or loss of language skills
nonfunctional rituals
inability to adapt to new settings
lack of imitation
absence of imaginary play

29

Diagnostic criteria for Asperger Disorder

Impairment in social interaction (at least 2)
Stereotyped patterns of behavior (at least 1)
Significant impairment in impt areas of functioning
No significant language delay
No clinically significant delay in cognitive development
Criteria not met by another PDD or schizophrenia

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