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What are the three types of cloning technologies?

What is the stand of the PPS on this matter?

gene cloning, therapeutic cloning, reproductive cloning

The PPS supports the worldwide ban on human reproductive cloning.

gene cloning - also known as recombinant DNA technology
therapeutic cloning - sourcing stem cells from an embryo, embryo dies in the extraction process
reproductive cloning - embryo is allowed to mature, producing a clone of the donor animal, same chromosomal DNA as the donor, but mitochondrial DNA of the enucleated egg

in therapeutic and reproductive cloning, the DNA of an embryo is removed and replaced by DNA from an adult animal


BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile for age and gender

At risk for obesity


BMI at or above the 95th percentile for age and gender


* Weight for length is usually used in the under 2 year age group


What is the minimum employable age in the Philippines?

15 yrs old

Children between 15 and 18 years old may be employed in undertakings not hazardous or deleterious in nature

A child below 15 years old is not permitted to work in any public or private establishment, with two exceptions:
1) child works directly under the sole responsibility of his guardian/parent/legal guardian; health, morals, and devt are not endangered
2) child's employment or participation in public entertainment or information through cinema, theater, radio or television is essential


In cases where a child is allowed to work below 15 yrs old, what is the allowable work hours per day and work days per week?

not more than 4 hours per day, 5 days per week


What is the allowable work hours per day and per week in children 15-18 yrs of age, provided that they work in non-hazardous circumstances?

not more than 8 hours per day and not more than 40 hours per week

- working children are to have, at any time, access to primary and secondary education and training (formal or non-formal)


What is Republic Act 9231?

Anti-Child Labor Law

- The Act provides for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and affords stronger protection for the working child


What is the maximum level of use of caffeine in children?

200 ppm


Among the following beverages, which has the highest caffeine content?

a. Coke
b. 7-Up
c. Mountain Dew
d. Pepsi

c. Mountain Dew

a. Coke (regular) - 34 mg
b. 7-Up - 0 mg
c. Mountain Dew - 55 mg
d. Pepsi - 37 mg


Exceptions to pre-operative risk assessment (2)

(1) Healthy patients requiring nerve blocks, local or topical anesthesia and/or no more than 50% nitrogen oxide, oxygen and no other sedative or analgesic agents, and
(2) Patients receiving sedation analgesia or conscious sedation.


What is the greatest risk in doing surgical procedures among the pediatric population?

a. cardiovascular
b. pulmonary and airway

b. pulmonary and airway

However, cardiac conditions together with coagulopathy, anemia, pregnancy and reactions to anesthesia may increase the risk in the pediatric population and must also be given due consideration.


Laboratory examinations to be done routinely when obtaining pre – operative clearance in the pediatric population

1) complete blood count with hematocrit, differential count and quantified platelet count
2) chest X – ray (PA-Lateral)

- Once the patient has been evaluated by a pediatrician, it is the pediatrician's prerogative whether to order additional laboratory examinations or to refer the patient to a corresponding specialist


Important components of pediatric PE for sports clearance (4)

1. Precordial auscultation in both the supine and standing positions to identify, in particular, heart murmurs consistent with dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction;
2. Assessment of the femoral artery pulses to exclude coarctation of the aorta;
3. Recognition of the physical stigmata of Marfan syndrome; and 4. Brachial blood pressure measurement in the sitting position


What are the contraindications to breastfeeding?

What are the relative contraindications to breastfeeding (stated in PPS guidelines)?

1. galactosemia in the infant
2. maternal use of illegal drugs, anti-neoplastic agents and radiopharmaceuticals

Relative contraindications:
1. Active tuberculosis infection
2. Maternal HIV infection

- breastfeeding is allowed after observed treatment with anti-Koch's therapy for 2 weeks. During the two weeks of treatment, breast milk can still be given to the infant by cup or dropper. The breast milk should be expressed in a strictly aseptic manner and given to the infant by a caregiver other than the mother
- HIV-positive mothers may still opt to give their infants expressed and heat-treated breast milk


Republic Act (RA) No. 7600 is known as

“The Rooming-In and Breastfeeding Act of 1992”


Rare disorders not prioritized by pharmaceutical industry and researchers in the development of new treatment and research due to perceived low return of investment and low utilization due to its rarity

Orphan disorders

WHO defines orphan disorders as conditions that affect less than 1000 people per million.

In the Philippines: disorders affecting 1 in every 20,000 individuals


What is the recommended backpack weight for school children

The weight must not exceed more than 10% of the child's body weight


What is the recommended daily intake of folic acid for women of childbearing age?

0.4 mg (400ug)

- Although adequate folate consumption from food was shown to have a protective effect against NTD-affected pregnancies, it should be coupled with intake of folic acid supplements
- Studies reveal that folic acid supplementation prior to and in the beginning of pregnancy dramatically reduce the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy.


What is the 6th most common birth defect in the Philippines?

Neural tube defects (anencephaly and other similar malformations)


What is the recommended daily intake of folic acid for women with NTD-affected pregnancies who wish to get pregnant?

4 mg (4000 µg) one month prior to getting pregnant until the first three months of pregnancy

For those who are planning another pregnancy, consultation with a health provider is a must because daily folic acid consumption should be increased to 4 mg (4000 µg) one month prior to getting pregnant until the first three months of pregnancy.

Daily intake of 0.4 mg (400 µg) of folic acid is recommended when these women have no intention of getting pregnant.


Sucking activity in children is a commonly observed behavior in which age group?

0-18 mos


Which material used for pacifiers is more likely to have a higher carriage of C. albicans?

a. rubber
b. silicone
c. latex

c. Latex

Pacifiers made of latex were more likely to have higher carriage of C. albicans compared to those made of silicone.


Should parents opt to use pacifiers, when should it be started and discontinued?

Start pacifier use only after breastfeeding has been well established. Discontinue use before the permanent incisors erupt, ideally before 4 yrs of age.


According to the Philippine Pediatric Dental Society, prolonged pacifier use may promote what kind of dental anomaly?

malocclusion and open bite

- use orthodontic pacifiers at the very least if parents decide to use one


At what age can a child be allowed to sit in the front seat of a motor vehicle?

>6 yrs old

- below 6 yrs old, children should be seated at the back


When should specialized child seats be used before being able to use the built-in seatbelts in motor vehicles? (maximum weight and age)

use specialized child seats for children weighing up to 60 lbs or up to 8 yrs old

use of built in car seatbelts is mandated for children older than 8 yrs old


What is considered the maximum safe level of noise exposure?

less than 85 dB

- this is the maximum set point at which adverse effects can result
- auditory effects: hearing impairment, acoustic trauma
- non-auditory effects: physiological, stress, behavioral


What is the safety requirement on toys producing sounds as recommended by the American Society for Testing and Materials?

Instantaneous sound produced by the toy should not exceed 138 dBA at any point 25 cm from the surface of the toys


In listening to a portable music player, what is the recommended maximum listening time that would prevent noise-induced hearing loss?

No more than 60% of the maximum volume for only 30 minutes in a day

- there are no time limits to the use of a portable music player at 0-50% of the maximum volume


What are the disorders included in newborn screening?

phenylketonuria (PKU)
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
congenital hypothyroidism (CH)
galactosemia (GAL)
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD)