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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (48)
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Th WHO definition of moderate stunting is measured through what parameter and what cut-off value?

Z-score below median HFA

-3< -2

severe stunting: zscore < -3


Useful for assessing the nutritional status of populations, because this measure of skeletal growth reflects the cumulative impact of events affecting nutritional status that result in stunting and is also referred to as chronic malnutrition

Height for age


What is the measure of acute malnutrition (wasting)?

weight for height (WFA)

NOT weight for age, which is an additional commonly used measurement of nutritional status (easier to measure, butcombines stature with current health conditions)

In emergencies and in some field settings, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is often used for screening in lieu of weight for height.


Type of malnutrition characterized by failure to gain weight and irritability, followed by weight loss and listlessness until emaciation results

Nonedematous malnutrition (marasmus)


Syndrome that complicates the acute nutritional rehabilitation of children who are undernourished, marked by the development of severe hypophosphatemia after the cellular uptake of phosphate during the 1st week of starting to refeed


- Serum phosphate levels of ≤0.5 mmol/L can produce weakness, rhabdomyolysis, neutrophil dysfunction, cardiorespiratory failure, arrhythmias, seizures, altered level of consciousness, or sudden death
- prior to refeeding, get baseline K, Ca, Mg, PO4


How is pediatric obesity defined?

for children > 2y/o, obesity is defined as a BMI >= 95th percentile

overweight: BMI between 85-95th percentile


For obese children, when should bariatric surgery be considered?

surgery should be considered only in children with complete or near-complete skeletal maturity, a BMI ≥40, and a medical complication resulting from obesity, after they have failed 6 mo of a multidisciplinary weight management program


Name the vitamin deficiency based on the symptoms below:

night blindness
Bitot spots
poor overall growth, diarrhea, susceptibility to infections, anemia, apathy, mental retardation, and increased intracranial pressure, with wide separation of the cranial bones at the sutures

Vitamin A deficiency

night blindness - when vitamin A deficiency is more advanced, due to the absence of retinal in the visual pigment, rhodopsin, of the retina

xerophthalmia - cornea keratinizes and becomes opaque
Bitot spots - conjunctiva keratinizes and develops plaques


What are the three useful indicators of marginal vitamin A status?

conjunctival impression cytology
relative dose response
modified relative dose response


Patient was brought in with the following symptoms: headache; vomiting; anorexia; dry, itchy desquamating skin; seborrheic cutaneous lesions; fissuring at the corners of the mouth; alopecia and/or coarsening of the hair; bone abnormalities; swelling of the bones; enlargement of the liver and spleen; diplopia; increased intracranial pressure; irritability; stupor; limited motion; and dryness of the mucous membranes.

Radiographs show hyperostosis affecting several long bones, especially in the middle of the shafts

What should you consider?

acute hypervitaminosis A toxicity

Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness; less-common symptoms include diplopia, papilledema, cranial nerve palsies, and other symptoms suggesting pseudotumor cerebri


Rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness, responding in varying degrees to thiamine treatment

Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) syndrome


Patient on a diet consisting nostly of polished rice was brought in for consult due to the ff symptoms: peripheral neuritis (manifesting as tingling, burning, paresthesias of the toes and feet), decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of vibration sense, tenderness and cramping of the leg muscles, congestive heart failure, and psychic disturbances.

What is your initial impression.

thiamine deficiency (beriberi)


Patient has the following complaints: Hoarseness or aphonia, ptosis, muscle atrophy and tenderness of the nerve trunks followed by ataxia, loss of coordination, and loss of deep sensation

What should you consider?

Thiamine deficiency
- Hoarseness or aphonia caused by paralysis of the laryngeal nerve is a characteristic sign


What are the two clinical types of thiamine deficiency?

dry (neuritic) type and a wet (cardiac) type

- Many cases of thiamine deficiency show a mixture of the 2 main features and are more properly termed thiamine deficiency with cardiopathy and peripheral neuropathy.


What is the classic clinical triad of Wernicke encephalopathy? What is the vitamin deficiency associated with this disorder?

mental status changes, ocular signs, ataxia

Thiamine deficiency (Vitamin B1)


What is the most common cause of death in patients with thiamine deficiency?

cardiac involvement

initial signs are slight cyanosis and dyspnea, but tachycardia, enlargement of the liver, loss of consciousness, and convulsions can develop rapidly. The heart, especially the right side, is enlarged and dilated; fatty degeneration of the myocardium is common.


What are the biochemical markers diagnostic of thiamine deficiency?

LOW erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the HIGH thiamine pyrophosphate effect (TPPE).


What are the symptoms of dry beriberi (neuritic type)?

Irritability, peripheral neuritis, muscle tenderness, ataxia


What are the symptoms of wet beriberi (cardiac type)?

tachycardia, edema, cardiomegaly, cardiac failure


A malnourished child came in with the following symptoms: glossitis, photophobia, lacrimation, corneal vascularization, poor growth, cheilosis

What vitamin deficiency should you suspect?

riboflavin (vitamin b2)

riboflavin deficiency are mainly related to malnourished and malabsorptive states, including GI infections. Treatment with some drugs, such as probenecid, phenothiazine, or oral contraceptives, can also cause the deficiency

clinical features: cheilosis, glossitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, lacrimation, corneal vascularization, and seborrheic dermatitis

diagnosis is based on the clinical features of angular cheilosis in a malnourished child, which responds promptly to riboflavin supplementation


Associated vitamin deficiency with the ff symptoms: Pellagra manifesting as diarrhea, symmetric scaly dermatitis in sun-exposed areas, and neurologic symptoms of disorientation and delirium (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia)

Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency

- caused by predominantly maize-based diets, anorexia nervosa, carcinoid syndrome


Associated vitamin deficiency with the ff symptoms: Irritability, convulsions, hypochromic anemia, failure to thrive, oxaluria

pyridoxine deficiency (vitamin B6)

- usually caused by prolonged treatment with INH, penicillamine, OCPs


Associated vitamin deficiency: Scaly periorificial dermatitis, conjunctivitis, alopecia, lethargy, hypotonia and withdrawn behavior, usually caused by consumption of raw eggs for prolonged periods, parenteral nutrition with infusates lacking this vitamin, valproate therapy

biotin deficiency

*Avidin found in raw egg whites acts as a biotin antagonist.


Associated vitamin deficiency: irritability, fatigue, numbness, paresthesias (burning feet syndrome), muscle cramps; Isolated deficiency extremely rare in humans

Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)


Associated vitamin deficiency: Megaloblastic anemia, growth retardation, glossitis, neural tube defects in progeny; usually caused by malnutrition, malabsorptive states, malignancies, hemolytic anemias, anticonvulsant therapy

Folic acid deficiency


Associated deficiency: Megaloblastic anemia, irritability, developmental delay, developmental regression, involuntary movements, hyperpigmentation; usually caused by vegan diets, malabsorptive states, Crohn disease, intrinsic factor deficiency (pernicious anemia)

Cobalamin (vitamin B12)


Pellagra is associated with what vitamin deficiency? Define the classic clinical triad of pellagra

Niacin deficiency (vitamin B3)
dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia

occurs chiefly in populations where corn (maize), a poor source of tryptophan, is the major foodstuff


Sharply demarcated lesions around the neck associated with niacin deficiency

Casal necklace

The lesions first appear as symmetric areas of erythema on exposed surfaces, resembling sunburn, and might go unrecognized. The lesions are usually sharply demarcated from the surrounding healthy skin, and their distribution can change frequently.


Persons on a strict vegetarian/vegan diet, those who have pernicious anemia or Crohn's disease and pxs who underwent ileal resection are typically at risk for developing what vitamin deficiency?

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

- Dietary sources of vitamin B12 are almost exclusively from animal foods


A disease of growing bone that is due to unmineralized matrix at the growth plates and occurs in children only before fusion of the epiphyses


- Osteomalacia is present when there is inadequate mineralization of bone osteoid and occurs in children and adults.