Flashcards in Behaviour of tumours Deck (48)
How is organ selectivity for metastasis explained?
Tissue environment is important in the development of metastases
What role does angiogenesis have in metastasis?
Essential if metastases are to grow larger than 1-2 mm
Factors promoting angiogenesis are produced by what 3 types of cells?
Tumour cells, stromal cells and inflammatory cells
Name 3 factors which promote angiogenesis?
Name 4 inhibitors of angiogenesis?
How does the balance between promotors and inhibitors of angiogenesis change in metastasis and why?
Promotor expression increases and outnumber inhibitor expression, not only are promotors produced by tumour cells, the tumour cells illicit an inflammatory response which leads to the stromal and inflammatory cells produced these promotors which further contributes to the formation of new blood vessels
Give 3 reasons to stage and grade a tumour?
1) Determine prognosis - survival time, quality of life
2) Decide how to treat a tumour
3) Research - compare therapies or prognostic factors
What is meant by stage of a tumour?
How advanced the tumour is. Has the cancer spread and if so what is the extent of the spread.
If you had an arrow depicting cancer disease course from pre-invasive to death stage would tell you how far along the arrow the tumour is
What is meant by the grade of a tumour?
How aggressive is the tumour and how different does it look from the tissue of origin
If you had an arrow depicting cancer disease course from pre-invasive to death grade would tell you how fast the tumour is moving along the arrow
Tumours are staged using TMN what does this stand for?
Each organ has an individual TMN system, stage can be clinical, pathological or radiological
How does TMN staging basically work?
T = size and extend of primary tumour
M = presence and extent of distant metastases
N = presence and number of lymph node metastases
TMN can be combined to give and overall stage for the tumour from 1-4
How does the stage of a breast cancer affect the treatment?
1 - surgery only
2 - surgery and radiotherapy
3 - surgery and chemo
4 - chemo
What is Duke's staging for colorectal cancer?
A = invades into, but not through bowel wall
B = invades through the bowel wall but with no lymph node metastases
C = local lymph nodes involved
D = distant metastases
How does Duke's staging for colorectal cancer correlate with survival?
A = >90% 5 year survival
B = 70% 5 year survival
C = 30% 5 year survival
D = 5-10% 5 year survival
Grading is performed by which specialists?
What is grading based on?
Differentiation - how much does the tumour resemble the tissue it originates from
Nuclear pleomorphism and size
How do grade and stage correlate with outcome?
Both correlate well with outcome